Science of understanding, how research is performed methodically. Encompasses Carrying out experiment, test, surveys and so on. Study different techniques which can be utilized in the performance of experiment, test, surveys etc. Comprise of Different investigation techniques. Entire strategy towards achievement of objective. Objective To discover solution to research problem. To apply correct procedures so as to determine solutions.
Research method pertains to all those methods, which a researcher employs to undertake research process, to solve the given problem. The techniques and procedure, that are applied during the course of studying research problem are known as the research method. It encompasses both qualitative and quantitative method of performing research operations, such as survey, case study, interview, questionnaire, observation, etc. These are the approaches, which help in collecting data and conducting research, in order to achieve specific objectives such as theory testing or development.
All the instruments and behaviour, used at various levels of the research activity such as making observations, data collection, data processing, drawing inferences, decision making, etc. Research methods are put into three categories:. Research Methodology, as its name suggest is the study of methods, so as to solve the research problem.
It is the science of learning the way research should be performed systematically. It refers to the rigorous analysis of the methods applied in the stream of research, to ensure that the conclusions drawn are valid, reliable and credible too. The researcher takes an overview of various steps that are chosen by him in understanding the problem at hand, along with the logic behind the methods employed by the researcher during study.
It also clarifies the reason for using a particular method or technique, and not others, so that the results obtained can be assessed either by the researcher himself or any other party. The differences between research method and research methodology can be drawn clearly on the following grounds:. The scope of research methodology is wider than that of research method, as the latter is the part of the former. For understanding the research problem thoroughly, the researcher should know the research methodology along with the methods.
In a nutshell, research method refers to the technique which can be adopted to explore the nature of the world that surrounds us. On the contrary, research methodology is the foundation, which helps us to understand the determinants influencing the effectiveness of the methods applied. Good and helpful thanks Surbhi, I would like to cite your work, can you please post a reference.
This is a summary of the key concepts in scientific research and an attempt to erase some common misconceptions in science. Steps of the scientific method are shaped like an hourglass - starting from general questions, narrowing down to focus on one specific aspect , and designing research where we can observe and analyze this aspect.
At last, we conclude and generalize to the real world. Researchers organize their research by formulating and defining a research problem. This helps them focus the research process so that they can draw conclusions reflecting the real world in the best possible way.
In research, a hypothesis is a suggested explanation of a phenomenon. A null hypothesis is a hypothesis which a researcher tries to disprove. Research methodology involves the researcher providing an alternative hypothesis, a research hypothesis , as an alternate way to explain the phenomenon. The research hypothesis is often based on observations that evoke suspicion that the null hypothesis is not always correct. In the Stanley Milgram Experiment , the null hypothesis was that the personality determined whether a person would hurt another person, while the research hypothesis was that the role, instructions and orders were much more important in determining whether people would hurt others.
A variable is something that changes. It changes according to different factors. Some variables change easily, like the stock-exchange value, while other variables are almost constant, like the name of someone.
Researchers are often seeking to measure variables. The variable can be a number, a name, or anything where the value can change. An example of a variable is temperature. The temperature varies according to other variable and factors. You can measure different temperature inside and outside.
If it is a sunny day, chances are that the temperature will be higher than if it's cloudy. Another thing that can make the temperature change is whether something has been done to manipulate the temperature, like lighting a fire in the chimney. In research, you typically define variables according to what you're measuring.
The independent variable is the variable which the researcher would like to measure the cause , while the dependent variable is the effect or assumed effect , dependent on the independent variable. These variables are often stated in experimental research , in a hypothesis , e. In explorative research methodology, e. They might not be stated because the researcher does not have a clear idea yet on what is really going on.
Confounding variables are variables with a significant effect on the dependent variable that the researcher failed to control or eliminate - sometimes because the researcher is not aware of the effect of the confounding variable. The key is to identify possible confounding variables and somehow try to eliminate or control them.
Operationalization is to take a fuzzy concept conceptual variables , such as ' helping behavior ', and try to measure it by specific observations, e. The selection of the research method is crucial for what conclusions you can make about a phenomenon.
It affects what you can say about the cause and factors influencing the phenomenon. It is also important to choose a research method which is within the limits of what the researcher can do. Time, money, feasibility, ethics and availability to measure the phenomenon correctly are examples of issues constraining the research. Choosing the scientific measurements are also crucial for getting the correct conclusion. Some measurements might not reflect the real world, because they do not measure the phenomenon as it should.
To test a hypothesis , quantitative research uses significance tests to determine which hypothesis is right. The significance test can show whether the null hypothesis is more likely correct than the research hypothesis.
Research methodology in a number of areas like social sciences depends heavily on significance tests. A significance test may even drive the research process in a whole new direction, based on the findings. The t-test also called the Student's T-Test is one of many statistical significance tests, which compares two supposedly equal sets of data to see if they really are alike or not.
The t-test helps the researcher conclude whether a hypothesis is supported or not. Drawing a conclusion is based on several factors of the research process, not just because the researcher got the expected result.
Key concepts of the research methodology. Understanding the significance of the Scientific Method.
Difference Between Research Methods and Research Methodology - Research methods are the means of conducting a research. Research methodology is the science.
Observational research is a group of different research methods where researchers try to observe a phenomenon without interfering too much. Observational research methods, such as the case study, are probably the furthest removed from . A research method is a systematic plan for conducting research. Sociologists draw on a variety of both qualitative and quantitative research methods, including experiments, survey research.
Our Research Methods pages are designed to help you choose and then use the right research method for your purposes. They cover the whole process of research, from understanding the philosophical theory underpinning your choice of method, through choosing the methods that you will use to answer your research question, to collecting . Method is simply a research tool, a component of research – say for example, a qualitative method such as interviews. Methodology is the justification for using a particular research method. So if for example, like me, you want to understand the motivations and perceptions of a group of bloggers then you would most likely choose .