In societies with a patriarchal power structure and with rigid gender roles, women are often poorly equipped to protect themselves if their partners become violent. However, much of the disparity relates to how men-dependence and fearfulness amount to a cultural disarmament. Husbands who batter wives typically feel that they are exercising a right, maintaining good order in the family and punishing their wives' delinquency - especially the wives' failure to keep their proper place.
Violence not only causes physical injury, it also undermines the social, economic, psychological, spiritual and emotional well being of the victim, the perpetrator and the society as a whole. Domestic violence is a major contributor to the ill health of women. It has serious consequences on women's mental and physical health, including their reproductive and sexual health. These include injuries, gynecological problems, temporary or permanent disabilities, depression and suicide, amongst others.
These physical and mental health outcomes have social and emotional sequelae for the individual, the family, the community and the society at large. Over both the short term and long term, women's physical injuries and mental trouble either interrupts, or ends, their educational and career paths leading to poverty and economic dependence.
Family life gets disrupted which has a significant effect on children, including poverty if divorce or separation occurs and a loss of faith and trust in the institution of the family. These sequelae not only affect the quality of life of individuals and communities, but also have long-term effects on social order and cohesion.
In India, one incident of violence translates into the women losing seven working days. In the United States, total loss adds up to The physical health consequences of domestic violence are often obscure, indirect and emerge over the long term. For example, women who were subject to violent attacks during childhood are bothered by menstrual problems and irritable bowel syndrome in later life.
There is enough evidence to support that higher reproductive morbidity is seen among women experiencing domestic violence. Studies conducted in North India have shown elevated odd's ratio of gynecological symptoms, while comparing women with husbands reporting no domestic violence and women who experienced physical and sexual violence.
It may be attributed to the fact that abusive men were more likely to engage in extra marital sex and acquire STDs, there by placing their wives at risk of acquiring STDs. There was also lesser condom use reported among such men. These make women more susceptible to HIV infection, and the fear of violent male reactions, physical and psychological, prevents many women from trying to find out more about it, discourages them from getting tested and stops them from getting treatment.
Besides this, research has shown that battered women are subject to twice the risk of miscarriage and four times the risk of having a baby that is below average weight. In some places, violence also accounts for a sizeable portion of maternal deaths. Quantifying psychological abuse is extremely difficult, and very few studies have been conducted to establish prevalence rates of this type of violence.
Qualitative studies that have been undertaken conclude that it is just as damaging to one's health to be continuously psychologically abused as it is to be physically abused. Undermining an individual's sense of self esteem can have serious mental and physical health consequences and has been identified as a major reason for suicide.
For some women, the incessant insults and tyrannies which constitute emotional abuse may be more painful than the physical attacks because they effectively undermine women's security and self-confidence.
Violence against women has a far deeper impact than the immediate harm caused. It has devastating consequences for the women who experience it and a traumatic effect on those who witness it, particularly children. Children who witness domestic violence may develop serious emotional, behavioral, developmental or academic problems.
As they develop, children and teens who grow up with domestic violence in the household are:. Economic dependence has been found to be the central reason. Without the ability to sustain themselves economically, women are forced to stay in abusive relationships and are not able to be free from violence. Due to deep-rooted values and culture, women do not prefer to adopt the option of separation or divorce. They also fear the consequences of reporting violence and declare an unwillingness to subject themselves to the shame of being identified as battered women.
Lack of information about alternatives also forces women to suffer silently within the four walls of their homes. Other women refrain from speaking about the abuse because they fear that their partner will further harm them in reprisal for revealing family secrets, or they may be ashamed of their situation.
Violence against women is a violation of basic human rights. It is shameful for the states that fail to prevent it and societies that tolerate and in fact perpetuate it. It must be eliminated through political will, and by legal and civil action in all sectors of society. An effective response to violence must be multi-sectoral; addressing the immediate practical needs of women experiencing abuse; providing long-term follow up and assistance; and focusing on changing those cultural norms, attitudes and legal provisions that promote the acceptance of and even encourage violence against women, and undermine women's enjoyment of their full human rights and freedoms.
The health sector has unique potential to deal with violence against women, particularly through reproductive health services, which most women will access at some point in their lives. However, this potential is far from being realized. Few doctors, nurses or other health personnel have the awareness and the training to identify violence as the underlying cause of women's health problems.
The health sector can play a vital role in preventing violence against women, helping to identify abuse early, providing victims with the necessary treatment and referring women to appropriate care. Health services must be places where women feel safe, are treated with respect, are not stigmatized, and where they can receive quality, informed support.
A comprehensive health sector response to the problem is needed, in particular addressing the reluctance of abused women to seek help. Domestic violence against women has been identified as a public health priority. Public health personnel can play a vital role in addressing this issue. Since violence against women is both a consequence and a cause of gender inequality, primary prevention programs that address gender inequality and tackle the root causes of violence are all essential.
Public health workers have a responsibility to build awareness by creating and disseminating materials and innovative audio-visual messages, which project a positive image of girl child and women in the society. An integrated media campaign covering electronic, print and film media that portrays domestic violence as unacceptable is the need of the hour.
The role of increasing male responsibility to end domestic violence needs to be emphasized. Programs are required which intend to address battered women's needs, including those that focus on building self-efficacy and livelihood skills. The significance of informal and local community networks should be acknowledged in this regard. The survivors of domestic violence can be involved in program planning and implementation in order to ensure accessibility and effectiveness.
The public health experts have a vital role to play in networking with NGOs and voluntary organizations and creation of social support networks. The public health experts have a potential to train personnel specialized to address the needs of victims of domestic violence. In the field of research, public health personnel can contribute by conducting studies on the ideological and cultural aspects which give rise to and perpetuate the phenomenon of domestic violence.
Similarly, the execution and impact of programs must be assessed in order to provide the necessary background for policy-making and planning. However, the health sector must work with all other sectors including education, legal and judicial, and social services. In January, India implemented its first law aimed at tackling domestic violence The Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, to protect the rights of women who are victims of violence of any kind occurring within the family and to provide for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
It also defines repeated insults, ridiculing or name-calling, and demonstrations of obsessive possessiveness and jealousy of a partner as domestic violence. The big challenge in front now is to enforce it in true sense. A bill alone will not help in preventing domestic abuse; what is needed is a change in mindsets. Concerted and co-ordinated multisectoral efforts are key methods of enacting change and responding to domestic violence at local and national levels.
The Millennium Development Goal regarding girls' education, gender equality and the empowerment of women reflects the international community's recognition that health, development, and gender equality issues are closely interconnected.
Hence the responses to the problem must be based on integrated approach. The effectiveness of measures and initiatives will depend on coherence and co ordination associated with their design and implementation.
The issue of domestic violence must be brought into open and examined as any other preventable health problem, and best remedies available be applied. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Indian J Community Med. Ravneet Kaur and Suneela Garg. On an ongoing basis, NCDVTMH identifies evidence-based, promising, and model approaches to healing from trauma in the context of domestic violence.
We are also in the process of crafting tools to better measure meaningful outcomes for trauma-informed approaches to domestic violence services. Taken together, these initiatives help to lay the foundation for building an evidence base for trauma-informed approaches in the context of domestic violence and other lifetime trauma.
While there are numerous interventions designed to reduce trauma-related mental health symptoms, most were originally developed to address events that occurred in the past. Many domestic violence survivors are still under threat of ongoing abuse or stalking, which not only directly affects their physical and psychological safety but treatment options as well. Little has been known about the extent to which existing evidence-based trauma treatment modalities are applicable to, or require modification for, domestic violence survivors.
The paper is part of a multi-year effort by NCDVTMH to partner with researchers, clinicians, and the domestic violence field to build an evidence base for both trauma-informed work and trauma-specific treatment in the context of domestic violence. Promising Practices and Model Programs: As part of these efforts, NCDVTMH conducted interviews with 45 programs or initiatives identified by their peers as engaged in innovative trauma-informed work with survivors of violence and their children.
Thirty of the interviews were conducted with domestic and sexual violence advocacy programs. In addition, 15 interviews were completed with programs providing trauma-informed or trauma-specific services for refugees and survivors of torture, as information gathered from these interviews may be relevant for domestic and sexual violence programs.
The interviews were designed to gather comprehensive information about how programs are currently conceptualizing trauma-informed and trauma-specific work and how this translates into enhanced or improved services for survivors of domestic and sexual violence.
The interviews also identified aspects of trauma-informed services that are especially meaningful to survivors and ways that programs are measuring outcomes and evaluating the impact of their work. Taken together, the information gathered from these interviews provides valuable insights on myriad ways to support survivors of domestic and sexual violence who may have experienced multiple traumatic experiences over the course of their lives.
The key themes that emerged from these interviews are summarized within this report. This project is part of a larger effort to build an evidence base for trauma-informed advocacy services and to expand our notions of healing, resilience, and recovery in the face of ongoing domestic violence and other trauma. Most recently, this has included a survey of mental health and substance use coercion tactics used by people who abuse their partners to further their abuse and control.
In addition, NCDVTMH has completed research on emerging video technology for the delivery of distance mental health, counseling, and advocacy services in rural and other underserved areas. Research has demonstrated that survivors of domestic violence are at greater risk for experiencing a range of mental health and substance use conditions. Results showed that experiences of mental health and substance abuse coercion were common among hotline callers: Most of the survivors who reported any type reported more than one.
Similarly, many survivors who reported that their abusive partners used force or pressure to get them to use substances also reported that their partners threatened to undermine them with authorities by disclosing their substance use. Recognizing and addressing these issues is essential to the safety and well-being of survivors and their children and has important implications for the health, mental health, substance abuse, legal, child welfare, immigration, public benefits and domestic violence advocacy systems.
The world's largest domestic violence research data base, 2, pages, with summaries of peer-reviewed studies. Over the years, research on partner abuse has become unnecessarily fragmented and politicized.
The research on domestic violence, referred to more precisely in academic literature as “intimate partner violence” (IPV), has grown substantially over the past few decades. Although knowledge of the problem and its scope have deepened, the issue remains a major health and social problem afflicting women.
Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be a child, elderly relative, or other family member.. Domestic violence may include. Physical violence that can lead to injuries such as bruises or broken bones. Considered together, these articles offer an account of the way in which research can shed light on the problem of domestic violence, and what to do about it. There are many other stories in other parts of the world.
domestic violence, including its perpetrators and victims, the impact of current responses to it and, more particularly, the implications of that research for day-to-day, real-world responses to domestic violence by law enforcement officers, prosecutors and judges. Domestic violence is an issue affecting people of all ages, races, genders, and sexual orientations. Violence against men and same-sex domestic violence are often considered less of a threat to society and to the people.