If Pierre asserts that there is a high probability for him to be elected, then Michael will have a family council and ask for his wife and children's opinions, which weigh significantly in his decision. If he is still torn between the two alternatives or has a more pronounced appetite for the President of the U.
He could tell Pierre that he is highly interested in the vacancy and that he would like to postpone his answer to the China opportunity until the "winner" of the elections is announced. However, going to China represents…… [Read More]. Power and the Use of Language Orwell's. Power and the Use of Language, Orwell's And Beyond George Orwell's dystopian novel has become almost iconoclastic in its meaning for contemporary society.
Almost like the term Machiavellianism, evokes images in popular culture, along with the author's name as an adjective, and phrases that were used in the book. Even the term "Orwellian" denotes a certain type of society; phrases like "Big Brother," "Newspeak," "Thought-Police," etc. The novel's premise has become part of a modern archetype, imitated on television, popular music, movies, and even one of the most popular advertisements ever made, the launch of Apple's Macintosh.
Nineteen Eighty-Four focuses on a new type of society -- repressive, totalitarian, staunch, all-powerful, all knowing, oligarchical, and pervasive. The novel's main character, Winston Smith, is a simple civil servant assigned to the daily task of perpetuating the…… [Read More]. Power Relations in Junichiro Tanizaki's Naomi The most powerful and lasting contributions to the literature of a given era are invariably penned by bold thinkers struggling to comprehend the ever changing world in which they live.
Spanning the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Japanese Meiji Restoration period, which was propelled by the fusion of industrialized economy and estern culture, and personified by the authorial brilliance of authors such as Jun'ichir? Tanizaki, shaped and inspired a momentous political and social transformation within one of the world's most ancient civilzations. The toppling of previously infallible Shoguns and the sudden distribution of democratic ideals across boundaries of gender and class forced many traditional Japanese to recalibrate their worldview instantly, and the result is a wealth of material, including novels, plays and works of critical nonfiction, all of which focuses intently on the crumbling conventions of age-old gender roles.
Powers and Roles of President. Economy was in its worst contraction, values of housing were plummeting and credit cards were frozen plus other external forces like Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan.
Nevertheless, there has been success in his Agendas. Though the economy still remains weak, the president has put forward various initiatives that help in stabilizing recommended longer term programs for sustained growth, housing and capital market, starting a process of reaching out to the world aiming at changing image of America and to change priorities of American military that are in Iraq and Afghanistan, Dana D.
The big issue is how Obama has been successful? There has been focus by the commentators that tight team work, deliberative methods and calm style of leadership could be. Obama read the country plus the political moments rightly.
He was having in mind that in America…… [Read More]. Power of the Media Few things in life have much power to influence individuals and society as a whole, either negatively or positively. The media is one such medium. In recent years, there has been great controversy over whether the media has the power to promote or curb violence.
This paper analyzes and examines the power of the news and print media to promote or curb violence. Part II gives an overview of the role of the media in general.
In Part III, how the media promotes or curbs violence is reviewed. Lastly, this paper concludes with recommendations for balancing the relationship between the media's need for freedom of expression and society's desire for less violence. Power Corruption Cycle You Have. High CEO salaries and bonuses reinforce that sense of specialness. How is it related to leadership? How is emotional intelligence related to different leadership traits?
How might training and development in the area of emotional intelligence and leadership prevent corruption and unethical behavior from developing in organizations? Emotional intelligence is often called 'people smarts,' or the ability to motivate individuals, to make them want to do what they must do, rather than to merely order them to 'do it. A good manager is interested in collaboration, and believes in the value of employee involvement in the company's decision-making processes.
A lack of emotional intelligence generates hostility between different organizational branches and levels, and discourages suggestions and valuable input from…… [Read More]. Is this a fact? What are its causes and how has it come to this status?
The war started in with the invasion of South Korea by the Communist North. The war had been predictable for some time, as the Communist threat had become more persistent in that part of Asia, with the Communists having gained power in China in , however, the United Stats had previously stated that it held no interest in the area and that it would not intervene.
Albeit this, Harry Truman and his advisors decided to send air strikes in North Korea and gained a United Nations mandate to send troops under its emblem to…… [Read More]. The case mentions that a project management office might be a valuable tool to help. Considering that the organization is running multiple projects simultaneously, this seems like a reasonable solution.
It is unlikely that any adjustments to the multi-project software system will be able to handle all the nuances involved with projects in the organization. The company has almost two thousand employees and is running a large number of projects simultaneously. With all the problems that the company is currently having it seems like a dedicated project office would be necessary to better manage the company's resources. If the company chooses not to implement a dedicated project office there are some other options that they may consider.
One option would be to upgrade the software or to find a replacement. A better system could possibly handle…… [Read More]. Power Taxonomy French and aven's power taxonomy contains five different types of power. These are coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and informational power. These different forms of power might have some overlap but there are elements of mutual exclusivity in these forms as well.
Legitimate power is essentially formal power, which reflects social rules. This is where somebody has a position of formal power, and has the expectation that those people subordinate will obey his or her dictates MindTools, This is where somebody is "the boss," or otherwise in a position where society grants authority, such as a parent, teacher, judge or other position where there is some formal power ascribed to the position. There are other types of legitimate power based on social norms, such as the power of reciprocity, where somebody might expect a gift on the basis of having given one in some societies ChangingMinds, Power the Sources of Power.
In addition those on the board of directors may have worked at the same accounting or law firms and had business dealings with one another in the past. Even some college professors and ex-high ranking government officials who have conducted studies or have useful connections are board members Holbrook, The author further reports that "These people with intertwined relationships with corporate management often sit on multiple boards, causing an even greater conflict of interest Holbrook, page 4.
Publicly held organizations are often beholden to shareholders each of whom owns a percentage of the company Winkler, Publicly held corporations must make financial information about the company available to shareholders per government regulations. Shareholders have a significant amount of power because they are a…… [Read More]. Power and Leadership as Exemplified. The fact that Lysistrata's "came to power" by virtue of her own leadership abilities which were recognized and celebrated by their peers rather than having them thrust upon her from above is pointed out by Ober , who reports, "The Athenians' demonstrated concern with native intelligence, their distrust of elite education, and their respect for the authority of the elders are parodied by Aristophanes, who mimics rhetorical topoi in the speech of Lysistrata, the female demagogue: Listen to my words I am a woman, but I'm smart enough Indeed, my mind's not bad at all.
Having listened to my father's discourses And those of the older men, I'm not ill educated. Lysistrata quoted in Ober at Indeed, Lysistrata's leadership qualities were clearly demonstrated in her ability to organize the women of Athens to show the warring men of the city just who in fact had "the power" suggests…… [Read More].
Power Is the Potential to. Moreover, the author assumes that in any negotiation, both parties participate even if one has the greater power. In many cases power is used to create generalized influence and has nothing to do with a situational negotiation. For example, a supervisor might weld power by calling frequent meetings or demanding frequent checks on employees.
No negotiation is involved; the supervisor wields power through rank but the employees have no say. Therefore, the textbook's explanation of power is helpful in illustrating how parties in negotiations gain or use power. Power is a conflicted term because it can be easily translated into negative influence over others. On the other hand, the authors show how power need not entail influence and in fact at the beginning of the chapter the authors make sure to distinguish between power and influence, which they define as "power in action,"…… [Read More].
Power There Are a Number. These types are power can be used by anybody who can skillfully wield them. Expert power is that power which derives from somebody's expertise in a subject Giang, They have experience or formal training in something, and others trust in their knowledge, abilities and insight.
Senior people at lower levels of the organization will still have a fair bit of expert power that they have cultivated over their years of experience. Another informal power type is charisma power. This form of power works on the basis of a person's personal charisma. A good example from outside of the workplace is the con man, who uses charisma to gain power over his victims. But not all charisma power is bad, it just…… [Read More].
Power of the First Amendment. Their protests alerted the rest of the country to their concerns. Chester Cooper writes that our experience in Vietnam "created greater tension in American society than any other event since the Civil ar" Cooper As a result of the protests, the Vietnam ar became a household word.
Student protests were incredible in generating awareness of an issue. The government realized that the more attention these protests garnered, the more something in Vietnam needed to be done. Tina Gianoulis writes, "there is no doubt that the idealistic energy of the youth of that period did change history" Gianoulis.
She states that Nixon experienced anxiety over the protests as well as the escalating violence in Vietnam. The student protests were not only raising awareness of Americans across the country, they were raising awareness of the current administration, which knew it could not hide from its responsibility.
Approval of the war dropped…… [Read More]. Power of Advertising in the. In Bulbul and Menon Other companies besides Proctor and Gamble have created advertising with emotional appeal. Consider, for example, print ads for McDonald's restaurants that show a mother and her young daughter taking time together for lunch.
Think of ads that show a sleek car speeding through empty city streets or a teary-eyed young woman surprised with the gift of an engagement ring. Emotional reactions function as the gatekeeper for further cognitive and behavioral reactions" Poels and Dewitte Advertisers also use color to provoke emotional responses in consumers.
Some research has been done, but the field is still wide open for further study. Lichtle noted that "despite its importance surprisingly little is known about the influence of colour in advertising," Power and Politics in the. As Lasseter had observed upon his employment with the firm, management at Disney had been based on loyalty to the firm and seniority, rather than actual performances, competence or innovative style. As he put it: The decision to fire Lasseter was not related to his competence in his job, but to his frictions with his managers.
The situation eventually materialized in the manager's decision to have him fired, and the decision was a political one -- supported by executives -- rather than a justified one. Power of Media vs Power of Me. Power of Media vs. Young Adult Response to Movie Images The topic of the effects of the media and its effects on adolescent self-image and self-esteem has become the subject of a number of academic research projects. In the literature reviewed, movies were found to included in the general definition of media.
A majority of the studies posit that we gain our self-image by comparing ourselves to others. We attempt to find a group into which we fit. When we do not find a group to which we feel we belong, it can lead to a poor self-image and poor self-esteem. There are many articles that draw a relationship between low self-esteem and conditions that can cause serious health problems such as bulimia, anorexia nervosa, depression and even suicidal tendencies.
Most of the studies draw a clear cause and effect between unrealistic media images and the low…… [Read More]. Power of Blood in Shakespeare's Macbeth Blood. Power of Blood in Shakespeare's Macbeth Blood is powerful when it comes to invoking images and illiam Shakespeare knew when he wrote Macbeth, the audience would remember everything with blood imagery sprinkled throughout the drama.
Blood imagery helps emphasizes the extrreme change in Macbeth's character and it is compelling because blood is vital for life. As the play progresses, blood represents guilt, which eats Macbeth alive. Later, we associate blood with justice. Blood symbolizes the lives and minds that are lost in the play. Blood is present from the easrly moments in the play, establishing an eerie mood. The team members will therefore resolve their differences and members will be able to participate with one another more comfortably" Four five stages of group development, , Washington University: During the third stage of norming "the team manages to have one goal and come to a mutual plan for the team at this stage" Four five stages of group development, , Washington University: This may come at some 'cost' to certain team members, as they may have to give up their desire to lead the group or sacrifice certain positions that are no longer tenable.
However, the critical difference of this stage is that the group can function more autonomously from the leader because members want the group to succeed, not just themselves.
Power Relationships Between Men and. Women in Control What some see as a male-dominated world, others see females in control, sometimes behind the scenes. When it comes to selecting mates, it is women who are in ultimate control. And, they are quite selective. Although if a man has many of these characteristics he may be able to more likely attract a female of his liking, in the end, men are at the mercy of women, when it comes to relationships, love and procreation.
This is a significant amount of control that women solely possess. Dreher's study regarding the glass ceiling and how women have been positively impacted by the increase in the number of work-life human resource practices in the last two decades. When compared with figures from the…… [Read More]. Power Control Theory Definitions and Meaning Power control theory argues that treating sons and daughters differently is what causes the difference that exists in risk perceptions among the genders and so is the cause of resulting delinquencies.
The focus of power control theory is how gender relations get established, maintained and perpetuated in the society. It is notable that power control theory tries to explain "common" delinquent behavior.
This paper will therefore examine criminal offences committed by adults that aren't overly offensive such as income tax cheating, driving under the influence, assault and illegal gambling. These offenses are closely parallel to those used frequently in deterrence research Blackwell, Perceived sanction threats, gender, and crime: A test and elaboration of power control theory, Considering the various definitions…… [Read More].
Power and Control in the. The court case scene also shows how focused the leaders are on maintaining their power. This is seen where Danforth says to Proctor, "You must understand, sir, that a person is either with this court or he must be counted against it, there be no road between" Miller This shows the complete lack of choice that the people of the society have.
If they do not accept the will of the leaders completely, they are considered as being against them. This leaves no room for anyone to question anything. At the same time, it shows that the leaders of the town are intently focused on maintaining complete power.
In this way, the leaders dominate completely, while the people are meant to be submissive to the point that they do not question any aspect of the leader's decisions.
It is in the context of this environment that the actions of…… [Read More]. Power and Politics Organizational Culture. Team building, group dynamics, talent management, leadership development, and any number of other functional areas are much more about clarity, focus, aligning expectations, and defining roles than creating equality" Myatt, In the last twenty years, organizations have come to the realization that the better their employees are at working together, the more successful their organizations will be.
Team-building is a verifiable way to ensure a greater success at employee cohesion. Private sector organizations have largely realized this, as private sector organizations more frequently enlist the help of outside organizations such as team-building experts to teach and implement effective means of team-building for their workers. Given these trends in team-building, I would want to further explore: What are the long-term benefits…… [Read More].
Power of Imagery Explored in. This poem is a favorite of mine because it reminds me to slow down and appreciate everything. It does not take long nor does it take much to renew and revive and that is exactly what the poet wishes to communicate.
In Joy Harjo's "Remember," the poet uses imagery and personification to convey points of importance. Because the poet is encouraging someone to remember, she pulls images from experience that will be familiar.
She begins by telling the reader to "Remember the sky" Harjo 1 and to "know each of the star stories" 2. In addition, it is important to know the moon. The poet wants to use images the reader already knows and identifies with in order to stress the importance of connecting with the earth. The importance of remembering one's parents is also important because we are all connected. She tells the reader to remember the "earth whose…… [Read More].
Power Sound Feel In. In Discussion, examine a situation involving demonstrations power influences power dynamics. You propose strategies enhancing individual's power base efficacious interactions. Power is one of the most important concepts in the contemporary society, especially considering that the present-day economic ideology dominating the world gradually influenced more and more individuals to direct their attention toward the material aspect of life.
Authority has a strong influence over every-day life and generally shapes the way that the world as a whole functions. Social structures promote the idea of power and humanity practically reached a point where power is an integral part of the world.
This essay is going to address an instance involving three families with a one-year-old in which the husband needs to look after the material aspect while the wife needs to stay at home with the baby. By addressing the idea of power and by…… [Read More]. Power the Term Power Generally. It is quite apparent that if the subordinates are not happy with the leader or the decisions that he makes, they will not work to the best of their ability.
A practical example of this sort of leadership is of Sir Richard Branson who is the owner of the Virgin Company. It should be noted that till this day, the company has a total of 50, employees. Despite having so many employees and such busy schedule, Sir Branson always looks after his employees and makes sure that none of their queries go un answered. He personally checks their emails or letters and replies to them.
All his employees know that he goes thorough the email therefore they provide their input regarding company decisions as well. This sort of leadership exemplifies the notion that importance should be given to the subordinates as well.
It is true that leaders may face tough…… [Read More]. Power Management Managers' Powers Managers may perceive themselves above everyone and support techniques that formulate wide-ranging exploit of the controlling role, be it by making decisions themselves, scheduling officially to manipulate other people's decisions by the distribution of resources or merely demeaning delivery.
This seemingly decreases the swiftness of managing and its assortment as well as verbal personality in support of further proper arrangement as well as control.
For this reason, this paper discusses how managers might use their power differently within the five contexts that features in Mintzberg's 'The Untold Varieties of Managing," highlighting on how the use of power might show up in the different contexts?
Introduction Sighting managers as institutional actors makes an individual to mull over preceding research which has reflected on institutional actors, as well as sought to explore their actions in that precise perspective.
For example, Henry Mintzberg has highlighted a perceptive study of…… [Read More]. Powers and Rights of the Constitution Institutional. The Constitution gives the federal government the right to form a military service, including what is now the National Guard Army National Guard, , though it does so in cooperation with the states and localities to serve their interests as well.
This section is important for a number of reasons, including the fact that it reinforces the differences between the state and the federal government without weakening the role of the states to protect and defend themselves. It also helps ensure that the troops and resources are readily available in each locality when urgent issues of various kinds result. They can be used for natural disasters, various forms of social control, helping in other times or need, as well as to address more complicated issues like war and terrorism.
This latter issue has become most important recently as localities look to be…… [Read More]. Power Listening" by Bernard T. Ferrari Power Listening by Bernard T. The gift of silence -- the importance of keeping quiet to truly listen We have all heard about the concept of 'power lunching' but the basic concept behind the book Power Listening by Bernard T.
Ferrari is far simpler -- and also far more likely to promote effective work relationships. According to Ferrari, one of the critical problems in the workplace is a failure of employees to listen to one another. Ferrari suggests a variety of techniques to improve listening amongst employees, such as being reflective about the 'kind' of listener you are; respecting your conversation partner and his or her ideas; remaining silent while the other person is talking; challenging your assumptions; and keeping your focus.
Listening is not something that is innate, any more than the gift of speech is: Every leader uses his or her own approach to leading, and while there are similar aspects to the behaviors of most leaders, how leaders approach their strengths is played out differently.
In literature like the blind man in Cathedral and in real life like the way Abraham Lincoln conducted himself in a political situation leaders provide robust examples of how to get things done and how to influence the actions of others. This paper uses the leadership styles and behaviors of several individuals to demonstrate their qualities or, in the case of Jimmy Cross, lack of leadership qualities as they lead -- and the paper points to the integrity the individuals showed in the process of their leadership.
Power critical understanding difficulties managers confront seeking manage change'. This undergraduate Essay Level III If resources reading list I Power is critical to understanding the difficulties managers confront when seeking to manage change Long gone are the times when firms would operate solely to generate profits and this represented their stated mission.
Today, economic agents across the globe peg their success not only to financial results, but also to their ability to serve the various needs of the multiple stakeholder categories.
In other words, while the final objective is that of registering profits, the aim is attained through a combination of strategic efforts targeted at serving the stakeholders. For instance, the employees are the most valuable organizational assets and they are treated as such. The customers are not the forces purchasing whatever the company produces, but they represent the force telling the company what to produce. The technologic community…… [Read More].
Strategic management -- theory vs. It involves defining a mission and establishing the tactical goals necessary to achieve the mission objectives. Establishing the tactical plan involves analyzing the internal and external company environment and defining a vision, business model, and appropriate strategy that aligns strengths and weaknesses to the corresponding environmental opportunities and threats Maxwell, Key performance metrics are determined and monitored to ensure progress along the intended track and that the organizational structure and systems continually adapt in response to emerging or changing challenges.
In principle, the strategic leader prepares organizations for change and establishes a methodology for responding to changes Kotter, In practice, weaknesses in strategic management are typically attributable to lack of skill on the part…… [Read More]. Power Supply Was Written as. After the participants completed the assembly test, I issued a post-questionnaire to find out how they felt about the report and how helpful it was in guiding the assembly of a power supply.
The post-questionnaire assessed the effectiveness of the assembly, asked if they understood the document and all the steps required to assemble the power supply, and also asked if the graphics were helpful. The post-questionnaire also asked the participants if they needed any additional information to make the document clearer or more useful. One of the two participants had about two years more schooling in electronics and so was more familiar than the other in assembling power…… [Read More].
Power Tactics and Power Bases. If those influenced feel strong forces deterring them from changing. If the people influenced by the change have pressure put on them to make it instead of having a say in the nature or the direction of the change.
If the change is made on personal grounds" or in other words, if the change does not seem to be motivated by the common good but instead for political reasons and finally 6. Forms of resistance may take the path of active-resistance or passive-resistance. Passive-resistance symptoms include agreeing verbally but not following through, feigning ignorance and withholding information" Bolognese, Of the two strategies, the most common is perhaps active-resistance through ridicule, otherwise known as plain, old-fashioned complaining.
No matter how necessary the change,…… [Read More]. Power by the Executive in. It could be argued that a conflict of interest could arise in the executive's ability to create or destroy a convention, assuming inadequate resistance from the rest of the governmental body. The idea that constitutional conventions exist outside of the bounds of courts and are injusticiable can be quite frustrating for many political scientists and politicians.
Conventions are best viewed as a set of governmental traditions or norms that while not legally binding are often socially binding through votes of confidence ozenberg, They are to be viewed as a political aberration that exist in large numbers in both the British and U. There is no agreed-upon system for dealing with questions arising from the topic of constitutional conventions, yet these very same conventions, by nature, adhere to the cultural, legal, and social norms and morals of the society, which the executive oversees.
There is no singular…… [Read More]. Shakespeare's key focus is the transition of power from one king or leader to his progeny. In King Lear, the title role decides to abdicate the throne and divide his kingdom equally between his three daughters: Goneril, Regan and Cordelia.
Whereas the first two flatter him, Cordelia is honest and is ultimately punished for it: In another part of the story, two brothers fight for control of a dukedom.
Here Shakespeare illustrates a contradiction between well-meaning, honest people and manipulative, power-hungry people. Home Topics Other Power Essays.
References Rao, Sree Rama. The key to power. Basis of power effects on method of communication. United States Military Academy. References Marc Bleacher, China Politics, Economics and Society. France Printers, London Macrae janet and peg white, Retrieved August 5, from http: Selections in Translation, W.
People, Politics, and Policy. Goldsein, "The contemporary presidency: Page, 'Who influences U. Women and men, work and power. Retrieved June 23, from http: French and Raven's Five Forms of Power. Power Tools View Full Essay. High Performance Industrial Tools and Accessories. Power and Ideology View Full Essay. There are some kinds of power that may not be negative, such as the power that is labeled as "legitimate" by Thio on page Legitimate power is when the person believes the control being exercised is with their "consent" or permission Thio, , p.
This type of power is either influence, which is the "ability to control others' behaviors through persuasion rather than coercion or authority" or authority, which is power represented by organizations or institutions, such as our government Thio, , p.
Influence is a more subtle approach to power, such as a professional athlete attempting to influence his fans to purchase a certain brand of sneaker or apparel. Just as there is consensual yielding of power, there are the kinds of power that someone uses without the permission of the other person. This type of power is defined as illegitimate Thio, , p.
The use of this sort of power is called "coercion" - the "use of force or the threat of force to compel obedience" Thio, , For example, when someone commits sexual violence against another person, it is typically their threats of harm that prevent the victim from yelling out for help.
Obviously, our entire lives and belief systems are centered around power, and its control of our actions. Someone always holds power at all times, and for some sociologists, it is the power elite with all of the control, or to others power is evenly distributed among large groups in our nation.
Regardless of which theory is believed, it is undeniable that power struggles exist daily, and can bring positive as well as negative repercussions for those in power, and those without power. Retrieved Sept 24, at http: How car steering works.
This can be documented. A major source of its defeat was that the massive alliance arrayed against it had vastly superior firepower. That situation remained after the war was over. Nonetheless, Iraq successfully evaded U. Where was its source of power? It later fought the United States and a much smaller set of allies to an ambiguous end: Why wasn't the US --supposedly the most powerful nation in the world able to quickly and cleanly defeat Iraq in the second Iraq war?
To be able to answer such questions, it is important to look beyond military might as a source of power. Electrical power provides an additional metaphor in the consideration of social and political power. It provides a window on the importance of the sources of power. There are many cases where electrical power may be insufficient. In the case of a developing nation, lack of inexpensive electricity may be limiting its industrial potential, which may in turn be contributing to the impoverishment of its citizens.
In a region facing an influx of residents, there may not be sufficient electricity to provide expected services. In an overdeveloped area, people may be facing power outages during peak usage times of the day.
In the last case, the best plan of action may be to face hard choices about limiting future growth. To do any of these, we need to understand the sources of power and compare their relative ease, benefit, and cost. Is a fossil fuel plant the best option? What about the air pollution in the surrounding area? How about a nuclear plant? Who is to bear the cost of the heat pollution it generates in the waters into which its outtake valves deposit formerly cooler water?
What about the dangers of accidents? Obtaining power is never without cost. Technological advances provide additional choices on how to generate electricity, which may enable us to limit or mute some of those costs. The same is true with increasing or obtaining political power, where identifying and developing alternative sources of power may mitigate some of its undesirable impacts.
Additional insights into understanding power are offered by Beyond Intractability project participants. A couple of comments are in order before leaving this list. First, while each item on the list is obviously a potential source of the capacity to bring about change power , only the last is, by definition, directly related to force and coercion. Second, I want to underscore authority as a source of power.
Stanley Milgram has compellingly highlighted its import in the series of experiments in which people were asked to shock a "learner" at increasingly higher voltages if the learner did not answer questions correctly. Sixty-five percent of the subjects did as requested, even after hearing feigned cries of pain the learner was a confederate of the experimenter and was not actually receiving any shocks. With numbing regularity good people were seen to knuckle under the demands of authority and perform actions that were callous and severe.
Men who are in everyday life responsible and decent were seduced by the trappings of authority, by the control of their perceptions, and by the uncritical acceptance of the experimenter's definition of the situation, into performing harsh acts. A substantial proportion of people do what they are told to do, irrespective of the content of the act and without limitations of conscience, so long as they perceive that the command comes from a legitimate authority. Given that power's sources are very different, it is not surprising that its manifestations are different enough in kind to justify a separate treatment for each.
But as a brief overview, let us consider the image presented by Kenneth Boulding, a preeminent peace researcher and economist who has provided us with a powerful metaphor for grappling with the different types of power: The stick and the carrot are familiar metaphors, the first for force and the second for enticement.
The third is for a form of power which Boulding claims to be the most-often used -- integrative or collaborative power. Coercive power , as mentioned above, is the form most meant when one refers to power. Coercive power is based on superior strength, often in the form of physical strength or superior arms. While the stick is its metaphor, force can be achieved through less overtly violent means, as, for example, when the necessities of life are withheld or when someone is embarrassed into submission.
Coercion is often accomplished without the actual infliction of force. The mere threat of its use, when believed, can be sufficient to obtain compliance. The chapter on coercive and threat power will deal with this spectrum of power. The carrot represents a much gentler type of power, one that relies on a variety of exchange and reward possibilities. Oftentimes, an exchange is made or implied.
Global economies are run largely on the basis of exchange power. So, too, on a more personal level, are much of day-to-day finances. Workers perform their tasks in exchange for the pay they are given. A worker may choose to meet an early deadline requested by a manager in order to receive the manager's appreciation, perhaps even a raise or promotion.
This spectrum of reasons that people change their behavior is the subject of the section on Exchange Power. It is the final element, the hug, which brings us to the least-explored form of power.
The section on integrative or collaborative power will explore a range of more internalized reasons that people change their behavior in a direction that may be more desirable to themselves or someone else. The first element the hug brings to mind is love, but collaborative power can also be based on qualities such as loyalty and legitimacy, or simply a conviction that teamwork is a more productive approach than hierarchy.
It may also involve the use of persuasion, the persuader drawing on not only the logic of her own case, but also the values of the other. While love and other integrative aspects of power are not usually considered when discussing power, this focus is not new. Deutsch, a pre-eminent political scientist of the mid th century, put it this way:. It is one of the currencies of politics, one of the important mechanisms of acceleration or of damage control where influence, habit, or voluntary coordination may have failed, or where these may have failed to serve adequately the function of goal attainment.
Force is another and narrower currency and damage control mechanism of this kind. Influence and the trading of All these are important, but each is replaceable by the others, and all are secondary to what now appears Feminist scholars provide a different lens through which to look at the three forms of power, which are referred to, respectively, as "power over," "power to," and "power with.
If power is the capacity to change, then should we not focus our first thoughts, not on fear and force, but on getting things done? This is the form of power that receives most emphasis in feminist literature as well as other literatures from those with lesser amounts of power, e. It reflects a concern about moving away from hierarchical forms of governance and society to what Riane Eisler calls "partnership societies. A conflict party has three basic ways to induce adversaries to move toward the position it desires: It may try to persuade, coerce, or reward the opponents.
In the real world, it is rare that any of these forms of power is exercised on its own. More typically, exercise of power involves a combination of some aspects of at least two, and oftentimes all three.
Sociologist Paul Wehr refered to the mixture as the "power strategy mix"--the specific combination of sticks, carrots, and hugs that is likely to yield the optimal result. When one is dealing with an opponent who is reasonably agreeable and likely to negotiate, all one needs is a carrot, with a bit of a hug, perhaps to make sure the negotiation is cooperative, not competitive.
If the opponent is unwilling to budge, however, a minor show of force as little as necessary might get them to reconsider and come to the negotiating table. Sometimes, however, a major show of force is necessary--but as the essay on Coercive Power shows, that approach has grave dangers.
Those dangers can be termpered, at least to some extent, by integrating "some carrots" and even some "hugs" into the mix--which is actually what the US tried to do in the second "nation building" phase of the second Iraq war. A related essay in this section on power is empowerment. How can less powerful parties make use of the array of sources of power?
What sorts of power should they seek? Feminist and other liberation literatures put a particular emphasis on this question, which is reflected in the empowerment essay. Blalock, Power and Conflict:
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Free power papers, essays, and research papers. Personal Power and Negotiations - Negotiations as we are learning, are a part of daily life and the ability to negotiate effectively, regardless of the subject matter, is an imperative aspect of personal and professional success.
There are multiple issues that can prevent you from writing a good essay. For instance, you may find it impossible to write anything on the assigned topic or simply lack the skills, talent and motivation to work on the assignment. Essay on Personal Power and Negotiations - Negotiations as we are learning, are a part of daily life and the ability to negotiate effectively, regardless of the subject matter, is an imperative aspect of personal and professional success.
Power Definition Essay Power is a strong word and really very hard to define, it is a very vast term, but I guess that’s the point of the word isn’t it. Power can be anything from love to death or even electrical power; it’s all about how you view the term on a personal level. Influence is a fundamental aspect of life in organization and it is unlikely that organizations could function at all without it.