An Atmosphere is a thin layer wrapped around our planet. It is a mixture of gases that makes it easier for us to breathe and also protects us from dangerous rays of sun, retained by gravity.
Earth's atmosphere is about miles kilometers thick, but most of it is within 10 miles 16 km the surface. Air pressure decreases with altitude. At sea level, air pressure is about At 10, feet 3 km , the air pressure is 10 pounds per square inch 0. There is also less oxygen to breathe.
Carbon dioxide and some other minor gases present in the atmosphere absorb some of the thermal radiation leaving the surface and emit radiation from much higher and colder levels out to space. These gases are referred to as greenhouse gases that act as a natural protective cover from the thermal radiation, known as greenhouse effect. Our atmosphere filters the sunlight and keeps dangerous rays from reaching our planet. Without such a filter it would get too hot during the daytime.
At night it prevents heat from escaping so it does not get too cold. Atmosphere is an essential part of universe. Without an atmosphere life on our planet would not be possible.
It also makes our world a more pleasant place to live. Air carries sound waves, which let us hear voices or listen to music. The atmosphere creates rainbows, makes the sky turn blue on clear days and the sun red when it sets. Air is heaviest at sea level because the air molecules are pressed together.
The weight of the air decreases and so does air pressure. At sea level, the air pressure is about As your altitude increases for example, if you climb a mountain , the air pressure decreases.
At an altitude of 10, feet, the air pressure is 10 pound per square inch and there is less oxygen to breathe. The oceans cover nearly three-quarters of the earth's surface and play an important role in exchanging and transporting heat and moisture in the atmosphere.
The exchange of heat and moisture has profound effects on atmospheric processes near and over the oceans. Ocean currents play a significant role in transferring this heat poleward. Major currents, such as the northward flowing Gulf Stream, transport tremendous amounts of heat poleward and contribute to the development of many types of weather phenomena. They also warm the climate of nearby locations.
Conversely, cold southward flowing currents, such as the California current, cool the climate of nearby locations. Practically all of the energy that reaches the earth comes from the sun.
Intercepted first by the atmosphere, a small part is directly absorbed, particularly by certain gases such as ozone and water vapor. Some energy is also reflected back to space by clouds and the earth's surface. Energy is transferred between the earth's surface and the atmosphere via conduction, convection, and radiation.
Conduction is the process by which heat energy is transmitted through contact with neighboring molecules. Convection transmits heat by transporting groups of molecules from place to place within a substance. Convection occurs in fluids such as water and air, which move freely. Radiation is the transfer of heat energy without the involvement of a physical substance in the transmission.
Radiation can transmit heat through a vacuum. Energy travels from the sun to the earth by means of electromagnetic waves. The shorter the wavelength, the higher the energy associated with it. This is demonstrated in the animation below. As the drill's revolutions per minute RPMs increase, the number of waves generated on the string increases, as does the oscillation rate. The same principle applies to electromagnetic waves from the sun, where shorter wavelength radiation has higher energy than longer wavelength radiation.
Most of the sun's radiant energy is concentrated in the visible and near-visible portions of the spectrum. Shorter-than-visible wavelengths account for a small percentage of the total but are extremely important because they have much higher energy. These are known as ultraviolet wavelengths. The Earth's atmosphere contains several different layers that can be defined according to air temperature. The word troposphere comes from tropein , meaning to turn or change. All of the earth's weather occurs in the troposphere.
The stratosphere is the second layer. It starts above the troposphere and ends about 31 miles 50 km above ground. The Mesosphere is characterized by temperature that quickly decreases as height increases. The thermosphere ranges from 80 km to about km above the earth. In this layer temperatures increase rapidly with altitude. Satellites orbit the earth at this height. It includes the exosphere and part of the ionosphere.
The layer extends into outer space and joins with the atmosphere of the sun and other planets. The pressure of the air at mm must be greater than the pressure of CH4 pushing the Hg higher on that side of the manometer. So you know pressure. Yeah Chemistry Toggle navigation.
Help Answer Chemistry Questions Daily. Add moles together, use combined volume as volume and find pressure 2. I have used 23 for Na 3. I'm more active than that. It required 67 s for 1. Under identical experimental conditions it required 24 s for 1. Calculate the molar mass of the unknown gas. Remember that the faster the rate of effusion, the shorter the time required for effusion of 1.
A gaseous mixture of O2 and Kr has a density of 1. What is the mole percent O2 in the mixture? Specific thanks to herman. Perhaps I didn't explain grahame's law very well. In this case it looks like this, but bear in mind the ratio of molar masses might be the other way up for some of the listed properties above:. I think that's how it works, anyway. I got myself a bit confused with the Latex stuff and now i've lost track of my thoughts.
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