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Essay on the Digestive System (For Students) | Human Physiology

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Accessory Glands for Digestion of Foods. Digestion means simplification of complex foods. It is the process of breaking various foodstuff into simple products. The complex foods like carbohydrates, proteins and fats are converted into glucose, amino acids and fatly acids respectively by the action of digestive enzymes. These simple substances enter into the blood circulation after absorption and then they are utilized by the body. This is also known as digestive tract or gastrointestinal tract.

It is a long tube of varying diameter which begins at the mouth and ends at the anus. The length of this tube is about meters. It opens at both the ends. The alimentary canal starts at the mouth into which cavity, the glands of the mouth pour the juice. As it passes backwards, it spreads into a funnel shaped cavity called-pharynx. The tube then narrows into a soft muscular tube about ten inches in long, called the food pipe or gullet.

This passes down the neck into the chest. It then opens into the stomach by piercing the diaphragm. The stomach is a large bag lying a little to the left under the diaphragm. It has two openings, one where the food pipe ends and the other where the intestines begin. The alimentary canal narrows again and passes into the small intestine which is about twenty two feet in length.

The rest of the small intestine is like a coiling tube, whose ends opens into a wide but comparatively short tube known as large intestine. It is about six feet long. The last part of the Large Intestine is known as Anus. All these digestive glands secrete digestive juices containing different enzymes which digest carbohydrate, protein and fatly foods. Five digestive juices are secreted from digestive glands of the body. The enzymes present in these juices help in the digestion of different types of foods.

One digestive juice cannot digest three types of foods i. One digestive juice cannot digest one particular type of food up to its completion, because food cannot remain in one place for a longer period of time. The medium of action of enzymes present in different digestive juices are different. Some act on acidic medium and some on alkaline medium. The mouth cavity is the front spread out end of the food pipe. The sides of the cavity are formed by the cheeks, the roof by the palate, and the floor by the tongue.

When closed, it is bound in-front by the upper and the lower sets of teeth meeting in the middle. The opening at the back of the mouth is known as throat on each side of which there is a mass of tissue called tonsils. In the outside of the mouth cavity there is a slit like opening which is bounded by two soft movable lips. These are twenty in number, five in each half of the jaw. They appear at about the age of six months. They are usually smaller and delicate. These are thirty two in number sixteen in the upper and sixteen in the lower jaw.

They appear gradually and push out all the temporary teeth. By the age of 14th, twenty eight permanent teeth are erupting. The last four teeth called as wisdom teeth appear after a person is twenty one years of age. The tongue is a muscular organ which is present on the floor of the oral cavity. The anterior part of the tongue is small which can move easily into the inner part of the mouth. The taste buds present on the tongue detect the nature of the food.

Sweet taste can be felt by the taste buds present in the anterior tip of the tongue and salty taste at a small area behind this tip. Buds at the posterior part of the tongue feel bitter taste and sour taste can be easily known by the taste buds situated in the middle and side area of the tongue.

A pair of perotid gland is situated in the cheeks, in front of each ear inside the mouth cavity. They are the largest of the salivary glands. This is also known as Sub-maxillary gland. A pair of submandibular gland is situated on each side beneath the jaw bone. They are the next largest glands, and are about the size of a walnut. It is the smallest pair of salivary glands. It is present below the tongue. The secretion of these glands is carried through the Duct of Rivinus into the mouth cavity.

The salivary glands secrete about to ml of saliva perday. Saliva is a watery alkaline fluid. A starch splitting enzyme known as ptyalin and a bacteriolytic enzyme called as lysozyme are present in saliva. The enzyme ptyalin present in saliva acts on starchy food and converts them to dextrin and maltose.

Salivary juice has antiseptic property. As the food enters into the mouth, even the smell, the sight or the thought of food, the salivary glands are stimulated and saliva is secreted. This is poured into the mouth. The teeth chew the food and breaks into small pieces while the tongue thoroughly mixes the saliva with the food. The enzyme ptyalin in the saliva acts on starch and converts it first to dextrins and finally to maltose.

Therefore, it is important to chew the food well to get the starch changed into maltose. When some cooked rice or a piece of bread is chewed well in mouth, it becomes slightly sweet in taste, because the starch present in them has been changed into sugar. Then the chewed food is gathered into a ball or bolus and set down the pharynx into the gullet or food pipe.

The wind pipe passage for the air is situated in front of the gullet. The food is prevented from going into the wind pipe by a lid like organ called as epiglottis. It is a cartilaginous muscular flap which prevents the entry of food into the windpipe during swallowing and the food enters into the food pipe or gullet. If a particle of solid food or water enters into the wind pipe, it is expelled by violent coughing.

It is a collapsible muscular tube of 9 to 10 inches in length, which extends from pharynx to the cardiac orifice of the stomach. It passes downwards through the neck, the thorax and the abdominal cavity. The food passes through the oesophagus by peristaltic action.

It passes down the food pipe by the action of its muscular wall which contract above it and push it along. Food does not simply fall down the gullet, but each part of the gullet contracts after the part next above and so squeezes the food along till it passes through the opening and enters the stomach.

The stomach is a dilated part of the alimentary canal. It is a bag like expansion of the food pipe with its broad end to the left and narrow end to the right. It is situated between the oesophagus and the beginning of the small intestine. It lies close to the diaphragm and slightly towards the left of the abdominal cavity.

The size of the stomach varies according to the age and sex. The stomach consists of an upper part, the fundus. The main part of the stomach is called the Body and this narrows at its lower end to become the Pyloric Antrum. In the mucous membrane there are a large number of minute blind tubes which are called as gastric glands.

These are tiny holes which form the mouth of these gastric glands. When the food enters the stomach, the blood vessels dilate and bring extra blood to the stomach. Then the gastric glands secrete gastric juice. The gastric juice is poured into the cavity of the stomach and mixed with the food. Besides the gastric glands, the walls of the stomach also contain other glands like pyloric glands, cardiac glands, and mucous secreting cells which secrete mucous, pepsinogen, hormone gastrin etc.

Gastric juice is a colourless, acid liquid containing water, minimum quantity of salt, 0. The stimulation of the secretion of gastric juice is partly nervous and partly chemical. After the food enters the stomach for some fifteen to twenty minutes, the action of saliva continues that is conversion of starchy food to maltose. The gastric juice by that time is secreted in sufficient amount and mixed with the food completely. When the food of the stomach becomes acidic by hydrochloric acid, the action of ptyalin of saliva stops, because it can act only upon alkaline medium.

Then the action of the digestive enzymes present in gastric juice start, as they become active on acidic medium. The enzyme pepsin in the presence of hydrochloric acid acts upon protein food and the casein, and converts them into more soluble substances called peptone. Hydrochloric acid acidifies all foods. Stomach also secretes a protein compound called intrinsic factor which is necessary to facilitate the absorption of vitamin from alimentary canal.

Besides digestion, the important functions of stomach are to protect the small intestine from injury especially very hot and very cold foods, chemical irritants, chilies, alcohol etc. The gastric juice has no action upon the carbohydrate food. The time taken for the gastric digestion is about three to four hours. Some of the sugar and peptone is absorbed into the blood vessels of the stomach.

The small intestine is a coiled tube extending from the pylorus of the stomach and leads into the large intestine. It is approximately 5 to 6 meters feet long tube. It lies in the umbilical region of the abdomen and is surrounded by the large intestine. There are four coats of small intestine like the stomach. Small-intestine is consisting of three parts which are continuous with each other.

The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine. The shape is like a horse-shoe. Inside the curve, the head of the pancreas is encircled. It is fixed to the posterior abdominal wall by peritoneum. The bile duct from the liver and the pancreatic duct from the pancreas unite to open together into the lower portion and from the back side of the duodenum.

The bile duct brings bile juice and the pancreatic duct, pancreatic juice. These two fluids mix with the chyme and carry on the process of digestion a stage further.

The pancreatic juice is an alkaline colourless liquid. It acts upon alkaline medium. It contains three enzymes. Amylopsin acts upon uncooked as well as cooked carbohydrate foods and converts them into disaccharides. Trypsin is produced by the enzyme trypsinogen.

It acts upon undigested protein foods and peptones and converts them into polypeptides. Lipase acts upon fatty food and converts them into fatty acid and glycerol. The fat splitting action of lipase is greatly facilitated by the presence of bile juice. Fat digestion is completed by lipase in the duodenum. Bile juice is carried by the bile duct from the liver. Though it has no direct action on digestion of food, but it aids the pancreatic juice in its action for digestion of fat.

Bile juice helps in splitting the fat into small particles and thus helps the action of lipase for its digestion. As bile juice is alkaline, it helps to convert the acidic food of the stomach to alkaline medium in duodenum, so that the enzymes of the pancreatic juice can easily act upon all types of foods.

It constitutes the upper two fifth of the remaining small intestine. It is the middle portion of the small intestine. Intestinal juice is secreted from simple tubular glands which are situated in the mucous membrane layer of the small intestine. The digestive process is completed by the work of intestinal juice secreted form the intestinal glands. It completes the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins. About ml of intestinal juice is secreted per day. This is also known as Saccus Entericus.

The enzymes present in this ferment act upon alkaline medium. This enzyme splits lactose into glucose and galactose. This galactose is again converted into glucose in the liver at time of necessity. This enzyme activates the proteolytic enzyme of pancreatic juice. It activates trypsinogen to trypsin which helps in the digestion of protein foods.

The enzyme completes the digestion of protein foods. It converts peptone polypetide and other undigested protein foods into amino acids. In this part of small Intestine the digestion of all the three types of foods are completed.

Carbohydrate foods are simplified into glucose, protein into amino acids and fat into fatty acids and glycerol. When the process of digestion is completed, they are carried to the last part of the small intestine i. The digested food reaches this place in about four hours. Ileum constitutes the last three fifth of small intestine. It is relatively thinner than jejunum. From this place the absorption of simplified and digested food starts. By the action of various digestive juices, saliva, gastric, juice, pancreatic juice and intestinal juice, different food materials are simplified and ready for absorption.

Proteins have been broken down to peptone by gastric juice, polypeptide by pancreatic juice and finally to Amino acids by intestinal juice. Carbohydrates have been converted into maltose by salivary juice, other disaccharides by pancreatic juice and lastly mono-saccharides of glucose or simple sugar by Intestinal juice.

Fat is simplified into fatly acids and glycerol by the action of gastric lipase and pancreatic lipase. Absorption of digested food take place in the epithelial surface of the villi in the Ilium part of small intestine. The mucous membrane of the small intestine is line by a number of projections like substances known as villi. These help in absorption by increasing the surface area. A villus contains a lacteal, blood vessels, epithelium and muscular tissue, which are connected together by lymphoid tissue.

Carbohydrates in the form of glucose are directly picked up by the blood vessels from the villi. Proteins are absorbed by the blood vessels from the villi in the form of amino acids. Fats, in the form of fatly acids and glycerol are absorbed into the lacteals.

Small amount of emulsified fats from water soluble compounds with bile, that are readily absorbed. Fat soluble vitamins get absorbed along with fats. Mineral salts and small amount of water pass into the blood vessels along with sugar and amino acids. Amino acids, glucose and fatly acid are passed from the small intestine to the liver for oxidation and metabolic process.

The excess amount of glucose is converted to glycogen and is stored in the liver for future use. After absorption, intestinal contents are slowly propelled along the Alimentary canal. The onward movement of the food is affected by means of waves of contraction of the intestines called peristalsis. The large intestine or colon is about meters or 5 feet long.

It is wider than small intestine. Most of the digested food having been absorbed in small intestine, a semifluid mass is left to pass into large intestine. The large intestine absorbs the substances which are not absorbed in small intestine as well as a large amount of water. The contents of the large intestine thus become firmer.

The materials ultimately thrown out are called faeces which consist of undigested and un-absorbable portions of food. These faeces are decomposed and putrefied by a type of bacteria Bacillus coli and give rise to bad odour, which are passed out through the Anus.

Excess of calcium, iron drugs of heavy metals are excreted from the walls of the large intestine and mix with the faeces. Movements of Gastro intentional Tract is due to the presence of muscular tissue in the alimentary canal.

Different parts of the alimentary canal have different kinds of movement. To push the food particles forward so that different digestive juices can be mixed properly with the food in different parts of alimentary canal. To ensure blood circulation through the walls of the tract so that the secretion of juices can become easier and the absorption work may proceed rapidly. Moreover, for the proper functioning of the Gastro intentional tract, movements are essential.

There are many types of movements like peristalsis, antiperistalsis, mass peristalsis, segmentation, pendular, tonus rhythm etc. Translatory movement in which the food are propelled forward. It includes peristalsis, antiperistalsis and mass peristalisis. Generally this movement is present in every part of Gastrointestinal tract.

Stationary movements are localized and do not move the foods forward. It includes segmentation, pendular and tonus rhythm etc. Some people may suffer from genetic or medical conditions that predispose them to developing GED.

A hiatal hernia results when the upper portion of the stomach pushes up into the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach, the esophagus, and if the hernia is severe enough then GED may develop. Schleroderma is a rare, progressive disease that causes the skin and other connective tissues to harden, which may interfere with the proper functioning of…… [Read More]. Journey Begins as We Enter. The blood in which we are traveling in is composed of red blood cells called hemoglobin, plasma, platelets, and white blood cells.

Blood is transported through the body by the heart's pumping action. As we continue, we will enter the hepatic portal vein, which delivers blood from the gastrointestinal tract to the liver, into the ascending aorta, up towards the heart.

As we approach the heart, it's pumping will pull us up into its chambers and through to the lungs where we will get oxygen and continue our journey to the kidneys. As we return to the heart, we will pass through the aortic arch and descend through the thoracic aorta continuing past the descending abdominal aorta until we reach the renal artery. We will make a left turn and pass through the glomeruli through the kidney's tubules and conclude this phase of our journey into the left kidney.

Galectin-1 in the Regulation of. The success was remarkable, according to the researchers: Even muscles that had already lost half of its mass, recovered visible.

Mantovani, p The new study is therefore interesting in two respects: First, it demonstrates that the muscle loss at least in animal models in fact, affects the chances of survival, and secondly, it shows a way, may be how to prevent this degradation, and even reversed. Burnfoot, p All changes in cell morphological character may affect isolated cells or groups of them, therefore the modification of a…… [Read More].

Lipids How Are Lipids Processed. These cells have an enzyme on their surface that attracts fat. The number and distribution of adipose cells has a genetic component, and is usually determined in early childhood.

Describe the major metabolic diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage for humans? Diseases associated with lipid metabolism, transport and storage included: Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a single bond between them and as many hydrogen atoms as possible bonded to the carbon atoms. Saturated fats contain carbon atoms with a double bond, and can therefore absorb more hydrogen atoms.

Healthy diets are low in saturated fats, since they raise blood cholesterol levels. There are two essential fatty acids: Phylum Annelida Annelids are members of the Superphylum Lophotrochozoa.

The division of the Phylum is in three classes Hirudineans leeches , Oligochaetes earthworms and Hirudinean Polychaetes and leeches. They inhibit marine aquatic with Parapodia, like nereis Meglitsch P, They are worm like animals that have muscular body walls that elongate.

They are also circular in cross section. The major difference between Phylum Annelida and other worm like creatures is that, they have segmented bodies also known as metameric.

Each segment has its own particular function. Phylum Annelida include different types of earthworms, leeches and marine polychaetes. There are those that live in fresh water, marine also terrestrial. Some of them live as parasites. Ulcerative Colitis Initial presentation The patient is an year-old of the Filipino-American origin. He has no known family history of ulcerative colitis or chronic illnesses similar to colitis. He is a high school senior student. Historical information The patient complains of diarrhoea times a month although it has been on and off for one year.

There is no known allergy that the patient experiences. Presenting Symptoms He experienced rectal bleeding, rectal pain and often had an urgent need to empty his bowels. His diarrhoea had bloodstains with mucus at least once a month. This led to few red blood cells due to the low level of iron, which resulted from the bloody stool. He had belly pains, which he described as cramping and his belly felt sore if touched.

He experienced constipation, but it was less frequent than diarrhoea. He had no signs of vomiting or nausea, but he…… [Read More]. Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine Connor An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys.

The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person Connor. Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system Travis Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More].

Cirrohsis Liver Disease Cirrhosis When. Based on etiologic differences, male-to-female ratio is 1. Primary biliary cirrhosis accounting for only 1. Age-specific death rates in the United States tend to be greatest in the older age groups, topping at 49 per , males aged from years and at Ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and angiography are suggested as imaging modalities for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.

In cases of patients doubtful for diffuse liver disease, ultrasound of the liver is being used as a screening-imaging tool and it is useful in for follow-up examinations. In order to make the presence of liver disease to be clear, computed tomography is usually carried out and it is detected by ultrasound.

Against this…… [Read More]. Inquiry has revealed massage therapy as a possible nursing intervention for the problem Shaeri et al. Additional knowledge is desired to determine if new research findings present clinically significant evidence for use of the intervention in the NICU patient population. Toward this end, a PICO question has been formulated: Given the increased prominence of theory-based nursing, identifying an applicable nursing framework is important.

Indeed, RAM is one of the most common nursing models. Essentially, the model emphasises patient adaptation to the environment Saini et al.

Gastrointestinal Tract Disorders of Motility. For example, in some patients, the stomach is unable to defend itself from the caustic nature of the acid, which creates lesions in the lining, called gastric ulcers. Most patients with GERD suffer from symptoms of other conditions such as Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS which produces pain, abdominal distress, and the need for frequent bowel movements Gasiorowska ,-page GERD is more prevalent with patients who are over the age of forty although it has been found in patients much younger than this.

Pregnant women or those who have other medical conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract, such as diabetes or hiatal hernia, are more likely to develop GERD. Age is a major factor as some of the preconditions for GERD such as slower stomach emptying come naturally age. There are three tests which have been traditionally used…… [Read More]. Alcohol the Search for Pleasure. Alcohol is classified as a depressant because it slows down the release of neurochemicals that inhibit certain behaviors.

The subjective feelings associated with alcohol intoxication are due to its effects on the brain and central nervous system but that system also controls our behaviors. The depression of certain neurotransmitters often reduces reflex time and reduces general inhibitions. The digestive system is also strongly affected by alcohol consumption.

Alcohol is absorbed almost entirely by the small intestine, from where the alcohol seeps into the blood. The liver is strongly affected by the absorption of alcohol and is in fact the main organ responsible for metabolizing alcohol. Over the long-term, the liver can become permanently damaged from too much alcohol consumption. The heart and circulatory system are also…… [Read More]. Heart attack education has brought to light the urgency of seeking immediate medical treatment if one suspects they are having heart issues.

However, chest pain does not always signal a heart attack, and may be totally unrelated to issues with the cardiovascular system. Typically, if chest pain is related to a cardiac issue it is usually associated with one of the following symptoms: Scientific Effects of Smoking on the Human.

We will give a brief analysis on how smoking affects the mentioned systems and see how the human body system works if the individual does not smoke. We will also support our paper with scientific and statistical evidence regarding the facts related to smoking. Smoking and its effects Before looking at smoking and its effects lets review on how the respiratory and cardiovascular systems work.

The bronchus is spread throughout the lungs like branches on trees and at its tips is as thin as a hair bronchioles. Each lung has about thirty thousand bronchioles. At the tip of every bronchiole lies an area which leads to tiny air sacs known as alveoli. Modality and Public Health Naturopathic medicine is a system for primary healthcare described as a science, an art, philosophy and the practice of diagnosing, treating and preventing illnesses.

This is usually practiced by registered or licensed naturopathic physicians Meadows, Naturopathic medicine is a tradition which is science-based which promotes the wellness of patients through the identification of unique aspects of every patient and then employs natural therapies that are non-toxic in order to restore their psychological, physiological as well as structural balance.

Naturopathic medicine is not usually defined by the type of substances that are used rather it is defined by principles which underlie and therefore determine its practice The Healing Arts Center, These principles include; the healing power that exists in nature, finding the cause of illnesses, causing no harm to patients, treating the whole person, prevention of illnesses and doctors acting as teachers to patients. Health Factors Influencing Support of.

It is a well acknowledged truth that memory related diseases like Alzheimer's are common in older people rather than younger ones. Memory tends to becomes less competent with age. It might take longer to learn new things or remember familiar words or names. Many measures can be adopted to reduce the increasing adverse effects of memory like eating a healthy diet, including physical exercise as a part of daily routine and by being social. Despite of adopting these measures to reduce the effects of growing age on health, these problems cannot be eradicated completely.

Young people are more energetic and are less viable to diseases because of the strength of their immune system. They have a stronger defense system against diseases because of the age. There is a strong relationship between age and support of health. It is tend to occur but applying few important measures cannot…… [Read More]. Diabetes Digestion and Diabetes Overview of the. Diabetes Digestion and diabetes: Overview of the process The digestive process begins even before food is consumed.

Looking at or anticipating food causes salivation. Saliva aids digestion, along with chewing. For example, when Jane Doe looks at a plate consisting of a whole wheat turkey sandwich garnished by vegetables and mayonnaise , potato chips, and apple juice, her body will begin to anticipate eating by secreting digestive juices.

The first major involuntary muscular movement for Jane Doe will not occur until she consciously decides to swallow the food in front of her. The swallowed food is pushed into the esophagus, the organ that connects the teeth, mouth, and tongue through the throat to the stomach. Taxa What is Cnidaria? What is it made up of? Who are the members that belong to his group?

Cnidaria is an exclusively aquatic phylum. It is a group that is represented by the members, who are also called 'polyps', and these are sea anemones and corals, and also by 'medusae', which are creatures like the jellyfish.

In general, both a polypoid as well as a medusoid cnidarian will be either radially or biradially symmetrical and it is an uncephalized animal with one single body opening, which is the mouth.

Stinging capsules, which are embedded in the tentacles that are placed around the mouth, generally surrounds the mouth. These stinging capsules are also known as 'nematocysts', and these are capable of acting both as agents of defense as well as of offense. The most important distinguishing feature of a phylum is the presence of the intrinsic nematocysts, and in turn,…… [Read More].

Nutritional Therapies for Ulcerative Colitis. These biologically-based practices of alternative medicine include the use of vitamins, herbs, and food supplements found in nature, chief among which are probiotics: These benign bacteria counteract the presences of the malignant variety, which often cause digestive problems if allowed to overpopulate. Probiotics can be obtained as supplements or found in certain foods, and have been known to prolong periods of remission in ulcerative colitis patients, with no sever side effects.

The use of fish oils is another alternative medicinal treatment for ulcerative colitis. Omega 3 fatty acids are found in certain green vegetables and in nuts, salmon, sardines and herring, as well as in oral supplemental form and are used to treat intestinal inflammation when ulcerative colitis is active.

Aloe Vera…… [Read More]. Cow's Milk Got Milk This. Some studies posit that casein consumption has a direct correlation to cancer cell growth, and patients with any form of cancer are counseled not to drink milk, and to limit the consumption of milk products.

This is contradicted in terms of using milk to help with certain stomach and colon cancers Hakkak, Men who drink large amounts of milk and consume numerous dairy products are at a higher risk for Parkinson's disease, and high levels of calcium intake 6 or more glasses of milk per day , also increase the chance for prostate cancer Chen, ; Giovannucci, et.

Additionally, a number of links have been made to digestive disorders such Crohn;'s disease and Hirschprung's disease, which are serious conditions of the digestive system and the bowel "How Bacteria in Cow's Milk…" The idea that the human body requires milk in order to produce calcium and create a stronger…… [Read More]. Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation. Agriculture Animal Nutrition and Feed Evaluation Qualitative, scientific-based evaluations of animal feed and the resultant nutrition of the animal are crucial for maintaining optimal animal health and responding to problems that develop as a result of diet.

In the case of ruminants, this can be particularly important as their unique digestive system can complicate providing optimal nutrition from traditional feed sources and techniques. A balanced nutrient approach to ruminant diet must take into account not only the feed that is being given to the animal, but also, crucially, the way in which the animal's digestive system will process that feed and provide or not nutrition to the animal. Creating this type of qualitative knowledge about the digestive system and nutrition needs of rumens with regard to different feeds "developed most rapidly when isotope dilution techniques became easy to apply, facilitated by improved instrumentation and mathematical approaches" 1.

From this information,…… [Read More]. Spina Bifida is one of the many birth defects neonates are at risk of. However, this particular defect is unique because it is characterized by problems in the central nervous system CNS and it has a low death rate.

The causes of this medical condition are quite difficult to determine as they are subject to hereditary and environmental elements. Simply put, Spina Bifida refers to a situation where the spinal cord is not fully developed. In extreme cases, the spinal vertebrae could be so badly formed that the delicate spinal cord is left unprotected.

In most cases, the spinal cord suffers damage due to this. The baby could suffer from reduced brain function and poor transmission of commands to affected organs. This slightly damaged link from the brain to the body tissues and organs leads to poorly developed body systems. There are other associated problems with this spinal defect even…… [Read More]. Epidemiology Liegl-tzwanger, Fletcher and Fletcher pointed out that the exact incidences of gastrointestinal stromal tumors in the United States and Europe is not easy to determine.

This is attributed to the fact that GISTs got proper recognition as well as diagnosis from the late s. Studies carried out in Iceland Tryggvason et al. Incidences if GISTs have been shown to be higher as a result of the fact that most patients live with it for several years and it gets detected only during gastrectomy or autopsy all of which are usually performed for other reasond. Lactose intolerance is a disease aggravated by milk sugars.

It can be controlled by diet, but often other measures must also be used to control the disease, such as the use of dietary aids such as "Lactaid. Lactose intolerance affects millions of Americans.

In fact, the American Gastroenterological Association AGA estimates that 50 million Americans suffer from the disease, and it can make their lives miserable if it is not treated. The symptoms of lactose intolerance include stomach cramps, diarrhea, nausea, gas, painful bloating, and flatulence "Living" These symptoms can begin as soon as 30 minutes after consuming…… [Read More].

Military Retirees Are Entitled to. First of all only a scant few of these Veterans groups will acknowledge the "promise" of free health care; for the most part these groups will tout the benefits already promised by the Veterans Administration and assert that cuts in these benefits are the same a broken promise-or contractual breach in legal terms.

The idea of the United States military making a "promise" or forging a legally binding agreement between individual veterans or groups of veterans is barred by the United States Constitution.

As will be demonstrated in the Literature eview, specific Constitutional language from Article I give Congress and only Congress the express authority to make laws and regulations pertaining to the armed forces. Therefore, the idea the military breached a contract with service members is, ultimately, inherently inaccurate.

Combining the lack of specific language within the materials provided by any governmental agency with the clear language of the…… [Read More].

Earthworm Dissection Phylum Annelida Is. Earthworms are hermaphrodites since they can generate both sperm and eggs. Mating involves 2 earthworms inseminating each other where sperms are exchanged. The male and female sexual cavities are located near the clitellum. They connect the lower ends of their anteriors with heads positioned in reverse directions.

Mucous secreted joins the openings with slime. Sperm is pushed into the longitudinal channels formed by the mucous. They reach the sperm receptacles of their partner, which then break apart.

Laying of the eggs and fertilization follows "Native Australian," The circulatory system is constituted of the heart, blood and blood vessels. It is needed to distribute nutrition to different areas in the body and is of two types -- open and closed. An open circulatory system used by earthworms is the simpler of the two where the heart drives blood into open spaces. The organs and tissues in the body are soaked…… [Read More]. One of the immediate responses from Magic Johnson's body with HIV was the weakening of his immune system, which made him -- and makes all HIV-positive patients -- susceptible to the following infections and cancers: Lotus Root There's No Disputing.

Still, others claim that the physical resemblance of Lotus Root to the lungs holds the clue to understanding its healing properties "Health enefits of Lotus Root". Lotus Root is said to treat various respiratory problems. Small doses of the juice extracted from raw, finely grated Lotus Root is recommended for lung-related ailments such as tuberculosis, asthma, and coughing, for heart disease, and to neutralize toxins.

Lotus Root is also said to be helpful for treating colds because it melts mucus accumulation in the respiratory system. When a Lotus Root plaster is applied to the face, it is believed to relieve sinus congestion and inflammation. Still, there's no concrete medical authority that backs up the claims that practitioners of Alternative Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine make regarding the benefits…… [Read More].

Hydrothermal Vents Life in the. These worms play an integral part of the community. They do not have any digestive capacities, as they lack mouths and digestive systems. They use hemoglobin produced inside their bodies to combine hydrogen sulfide, which is a necessity of many of the bacteria living in and around the vents. The worms transfer this hydrogen sulfide to the bacteria upon contact, and in return, the absorb the nutrients being produced by the bacteria. Additionally, one study examining vents off the coast of South Africa also found the presence of a new species of nematode, known as Halicephalobus mephisto Borgonie et al.

There are also a number of annelids as well as typical crustaceans, like snails, crabs, and shrimp are often common Edmonds et al. There are also species of fish and octopi that form some…… [Read More]. Environment Influences the Body Plans of Organisms. Another general distinction is the presence of three germ layers in the Bilateria, which are the endoderm, ectoderm, and mesoderm. These three pluripotent cell types will give rise to organs and internal epithelial layers, skin and nervous tissues, and muscle and connective tissues, respectively.

For example, the cnidarians have a mouth that is surrounded by radial pattern of tentacles. After the food enters the mouth, it collects in a…… [Read More]. Tom Shulich Coltishhum a Comparative Study on. By comparing and contrasting these two popular novels, both describing white men's journey into the space of the Other, the chapter seeks to achieve a two-fold objective: First, they looked into the duration of postoperative ileus if gum was chewed following a cesarean section.

Secondly they looked at whether there was a difference in the results when comparing patients who chewed sugar-free gum with the results of those who chewed gum with sugar substitute in it. In the experiment, 76 women were divided into three categories, the control group, the sugar-free gum group, and the group who were given sugar-substituted gum.

The patients who got to chew gum did so every fifteen minutes starting two hours after their surgery. The process is meant to observe normal or pathological conditions of the vessel organization. By seeing the lumen of blood vessels and organs, an angiography can provide information concerning conditions like luminal narrowing and aneurismal widening.

Vessel access is essential and serious complications can appear if the substance is unable to pervade the veins and arteries, but this is rare and unlikely to occur. The discovery of X-rays led to some of the first experiments with angiographies as…… [Read More].

Treating Scleroderma as Chronic Condition. Scleroderma Patient Scleroderma The author of this report has been presented with a hypothetical situation where a forty-four-year-old patient has contracted scleroderma within her lung tissue. There are many implications to having this medical disorder and they are not limited to the medical realm. Indeed, this report will cover a number of these implications and byproducts including stereotyping by all of society including medical professionals, the overall predisposition for the disease, daily life of scleroderma, comorbidities that might exist or end up happing and social issues such finances, the environment and so forth.

While there are a good number of things that can be done to mitigate, treat or even prevent scleroderma, there are a lot of implications that any scleroderma patient must face and it can be very difficult for the patient.

Analysis Scleroderma is rare but it can take on many forms. Indeed, while the patient in this…… [Read More]. Meanwhile, the leadership of the NRA -- an organization that indeed does a lot of good, and has millions of responsible hunters as members -- has attacked the science regarding lead poisoning and has taken the position that the law in California calling for non-lead ammunition in condor habitat areas is really an attempt to "ban firearms.

This has always been the NRA mantra when gun safety advocates try to pass legislation: This is a patently absurd but powerful piece of propaganda. I suppose I should report that the process went smoothly and that after a bit of research I now consider myself an expert in regard to the new science of DNA Sequencing. However, I have a thousand more questions now than before I began and even the answers I came up with may or may not be correct.

I do know for a fact that this is a pretty new art or science and its potential seems limitless. Mold Assessment and Indoor Exposure. Certainly, most North Americans spend the majority of our lives indoors, and the quality of our indoor air environment has been shown to play a huge role on our health. A wide variety of indoor pollutants can have an effect on human health, including environmental tobacco smoke, volatile organic chemicals VOCs and biological pollutants.

Early investigations into sick building syndrome often gave a multi-factorial explanation for the symptoms of occupants. However, these investigations often could not explain the long duration of effects. Further, investigations into indoor air quality have historically ignored the problem of mold, and failed to give a clear history of water…… [Read More].

The pass rate for the state of North Carolina and many other states has also declined in recent years. Community colleges are the prime educators of new registered nurses in the United States. In , community colleges awarded 41, associate degrees in nursing National Center for Education Statistics In addition to educating the majority…… [Read More].

Air pollution pertains to substances and gases in the air that threaten health and life. Among these are pollutants and irritants, such as nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, and carbon dioxide; particulates, volatile organic compounds VOCs , toxic substances and some natural substances, like pollen.

The burning of fossil fuels to generate electricity alone is the greatest source of air pollution in the U. These outdoor pollutants can undermine health and cause environmental disturbances, such as acid rain, and are toxic. The installation of central heating,…… [Read More]. Mold Spore Analysis and Toxicity. Mold Spore Trapping Current Scientific Knowledge People are exposed to aeroallergens in a variety of settings, both at home and at work.

Fungi are ubiquitous airborne allergens and are important causes of human diseases, especially in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. These diseases occur in persons of various ages.

Airborne spores and other fungi particles are ubiquitous in nonpolar landscapes, especially amongst field crops, and often form the bulk of suspended biogenic debris. The term mold often is used synonymously with the term fungi. A more precise definition would specify that molds lack macroscopic reproductive structures but may produce visible colonies.

Respiratory illness in subjects exposed to rust and dark-spored imperfecti fungi was described more than 60 years ago, and physicians worldwide now recognize a sensitization to diverse fungi.

Since fungus particles commonly are derived from wholly microscopic sources, exposure hazards are assessed largely through direct sampling of a…… [Read More]. Nutrition Wheatgrass Is Part of. It normalizes blood pressure by dilating the blood pathways throughout the body, destroys poisonous carbon dioxide, releases free oxygen and promotes higher metabolism and stimulated enzyme systems. Consuming chlorophyll from wheatgrass has been shown to be a very highly successful way to alkalize and energize the body Wheatgrass Juice Benefits, Wheatgrass has been used to treat a number of conditions including the common cold, coughs, bronchitis, fevers, infections, and inflammation of the mouth and throat.

Many years ago, wheatgrass was used to treat cystitis, gout, rheumatic pain, chronic skin disorders, and constipation. Even though most people use wheatgrass juice as a dietary supplement, some proponents claim that a dietary program frequently called the wheatgrass diet can cause cancer to retreat and can actually extend the lives of people who have cancer. They believe that the wheatgrass diet strengthens the immune system, kills harmful bacteria in the digestive system, and…… [Read More].

Earthworm Castings Earthworms Are Seen. This implies that decomposition process goes on activated by the young earthworms in the soil, given that the soil is loose, moist and rich in organic matter for the worms to remain alive.

The bacterium which is present in the alimentary canal of the earthworm converts organic water to natural fertilizers. The chemical alterations that the organic wastes are put to consist of deorderising and neutralizing. This implies that the pH of the castings is 7 which is neutral. The Latin meaning of vermes is worm from which the term vermiculture has been derived. Vermiculture is a process wherein the process of composting, containing the addition of some species of earthworms used to improve the process of conversion of waste and produce an improve product.

Vemicomposting varies from composting in a number of ways. Mainly, vermicomposting consists of a mesophillic process in which the microorganisms are…… [Read More]. Allergy Disease and Birth Date. How your birthday can cause allergies. Northern and Shell Media Publications. Retrieved on June 5, from http: Prenatal lead exposure heightens childhood allergies.

Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum IgE at birth in high-risk children. Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health. Latitude, birth date and allergy. Public Library of Science.

Season of the first semester of pregnancy predicts sensitization to food allergens in childhood: Post-Modern to Contemporary Psychology. Diversity and Psychology There were two major developments that influenced the field of psychology and the professions' views regarding multicultural competence, emphasized in Knapp and VandeCreek said of these new guidelines that they articulate a need for greater sensitivity regarding linguistic and cultural minorities.

The development of the new Code of Ethics and the APA's positioning were purported to be in response to a long awaited recognition of the need for…… [Read More]. Works Cited Medline Plus. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved May 7, , from http: National Digestive Disease Information Clearinghouse. Your Digestive System and How. Davidson's Principles and Practice of Medicine


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The Digestive System of the Human Body - The digestive system is a very important system in the human body. It is a group of organs that work together to turn food into energy and nutrients in .

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Digestive SystemThe digestive system is the the group of organs that changes food tocarbohydrates, fats, and proteins and used by our body. Digestion takesplaces begins form our mouth and ends with our anus. the function of ourdigestion system are to ingest food, digest into nutrients, cross our p.

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This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. The human digestive system is responsible for the intake, breakdown, absorption and finally removal of nutrients and energy needed for the functioning of the human body. The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract, which includes the esophagus, stomach and intestines and other organs that aid in digestion such as the liver, pancreas and gall bladder. The breaking down of food for digestion begins in your mouth.

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ADVERTISEMENTS: In this essay we will discuss about the digestive system in humans. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Organs of Digestive System 2. Accessory Glands for Digestion of Foods. Essay # 1. Organs of Digestive System: Digestion means simplification of complex foods. It is the process of breaking various foodstuff into [ ]. Essay on The Digestive System Words | 3 Pages. The Digestive System What are the main functions in digestion of the a) mouth b) stomach c) small intestine The mouth takes in the food and uses the teeth and the salivary glands do break down the food so it could move onto the next phase.