Skip Nav

Instructions for preparing an initial manuscript

Citation Machine — Write Smarter, Cite Accurately

❶If the same author s are cited for two or more papers published within the same year, place a small case letter after the year to denote the sequence in which you referred to them. Because research goes beyond manuscript writing.

Don't want to cite by hand?

Cite a Newspaper
How to Cite
How to Cite a Newspaper in Print in MLA

Units should not change within a column. Footnotes should contain information relevant to specific entries or parts of the table. Figure legends should be double-spaced in numerical order. A short figure title should be given as the first line of the legend. No single legend should be longer than words.

Nomenclature, abbreviations, symbols, and units used in a figure should match those used in the text. Any individually labeled figure parts or panels A, B, etc. Figures should be called out within the text. Figures should be numbered in the order of their citation in the text.

For initial submission, Figures should be embedded directly in the. See below for detailed instructions on preparation of and preferred formats for your figures. Schemes should be sequentially numbered in the same fashion as figures. Supplementary Materials SM are posted permanently at the Science web sites, are linked to the manuscript, and are freely available.

Supplementary Materials must be essential to the scientific integrity and excellence of the paper, and their use is restricted to Reports and Research Articles. The material is subject to the same editorial standards and peer-review procedures as the print publication. The materials and methods section should provide sufficient information to allow replication of the results.

See Experimental Design and Statistics Guidelines below for details. In addition, include a section titled Statistical Analysis at the end that fully describes the statistical methods with enough detail to enable a knowledgeable reader with access to the original data to verify the results.

The values for N , P , and the specific statistical test performed for each experiment should be included in the appropriate figure legend or main text. Additional information regarding control or supplemental experiments, field sites, observations, hypotheses, etc. Further discussion or development of arguments beyond those in the main text is not permitted in supplementary text.

Figures should meet the same standards as print figures. See below These are numbered starting at 1, with the prefix S eg Fig S1 All figures should be called out in the main text, No reference note is required. Extensive data tables useful in assessing the arguments of the print paper. Authors wishing to post presentations of data more complex than flat text files or tables that can be converted to PDF format need to consult with their editor.

For Quicktime h compression is the preferred format. Authors should opt for the minimum frame size and number of images that are consistent with a reasonably effective on-screen presentation. Animated GIFs are not accepted. Authors should submit online videos or movies with accompanying captions. Both at initial submission, and at the revision stage, authors should submit the supplementary sections, materials and methods, text, tables and figures, as a single docx or PDF file that should not exceed 25 MB.

For ease of reading, the text and tables should be single spaced; figures should be individually numbered, and each figure should have its legend on the page on which the figure appears, immediately beneath the figure. Supplementary multimedia or large data files that cannot be included in the Supplementary Materials file should be uploaded as Auxiliary Supplementary Materials or Movies.

There is a 25 MB combined size limit on auxiliary or movie files and a limit of 10 auxiliary or movie files. Video clips should be in.

Where possible please use HD frame size x pixels. Authors should submit video and audio with clearly identifiable accompanying captions and credit information. See Submitting your manuscript for further details on how to submit. Creating your figures It is best to create your figures as vector-based files such as those produced by Adobe Illustrator. Vector-based files will give us maximum flexibility for sizing your figures properly without losing resolution, as they can be altered in size while maintaining high print-quality resolution.

To keep file sizes reasonable, please save art at a resolution of to dots per inch dpi for initial submission. A higher resolution applies for figures submitted at the revision stage - see instructions for preparing a revised manuscript. Paper The width of figures, when printed, will usually be 5. Bar graphs, simple line graphs, and gels may be reduced to a smaller width.

Symbols and lettering should be large enough to be legible after reduction [a reduced size of about 7 points 2 mm high, and not smaller than 5 points]. Avoid wide variation in type size within a single figure. In laying out information in a figure, the objective is to maximize the space given to presentation of the data.

Avoid wasted white space and clutter. Keys to symbols, if needed, should be kept as simple as possible and be positioned so they do not needlessly enlarge the figure.

Details can be put into the captions. Use solid symbols for plotting data if possible unless data overlap or there are multiple symbols. Size symbols so that they will be distinguishable when the figure is reduced 6 pt minimum. Line widths should be legible upon reduction minimum of 0. Use scale bars in place of, or in addition to, magnifications. Do not use minor tick marks in scales or grid lines. Avoid using y-axis labels on the right that repeat those on the left.

Label graphs on the ordinate and abscissa with the parameter or variable being measured, the units of measure in parentheses, and the scale. Scales with large or small numbers should be presented as powers of Avoid the use of light lines and screen shading.

Instead, use black-and-white, hatched, and cross-hatched designs for emphasis. Units should be included in parentheses. If there is room, write out variables — e. Variables are always set in italics or as plain Greek letters e.

The rest of the text in the figure should be plain or bold text. When figures are assembled from multiple gels or micrographs, a line or space should indicate the border between two original images.

Search across your favorite search engines in one go. Multiple results can be imported directly into your library with a single click. Papers helps you focus on the task at hand. Highlight, underline, strike through and add sticky notes. Switch between different documents with tabs. Plus you can also view supplemental files and an offline copy of the article you're reading directly in the application.

Papers automatically renames and organizes documents according to your preferences. When you import references that you have access to, Papers automatically downloads the full text article. Whether you use an existing style sheet, or your own custom made style, make magic happen with Magic Citations in almost any application. A study of hormonal regulation of body temperature and consequences for reproductive success in the common house mouse Mus musculus in Nome, Alaska.

Masters Thesis, University of Alaska, Anchorage. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review. When necessary, report the complete URL in the text including the site author's name: Ohio State University Library has a good webpage for citing web sources: Internet sources should be included in your Literature Cited section.

For information on evaluating internet sources, look at: For unusual reference citations such a government documents, technical reports, etc, refer to Huth et al for a complete listing of citation formats. A copy of this reference should be available in the Ladd Library and a copy is available in the Biology Department. Suppose some of the information cited above was not gained from the Gumwad and Bugjuice publications, but rather in a personal conversation with or letter from an expert on the subject, Dr.

When you have talked with, or written to someone, and gained some information or data that are not published, you should give credit to that person in the following way: In the Literature Cited you must provide complete citations for each of the published sources cited in your paper. The format for entries in the Literature Cited section differs for books and for journal papers because different kinds of information must be provided.

The formats provided here are typical, but may vary in different publications depending on their particular needs and practices. Some basic rules applicable to all formats indexed by author name s: The role of estrogen in mouse xxxx courtship behavior changes as mice age. J Physiol 62 6: Mouse xxxx Mus musculus as a dietary alternative for humans. J Nutrition 33 6: Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship behavior. J Physiol 40 2: Physiological effects of estrogen analogs: Insincere courtship xxxx behavior in female mice.

J Physiol 40 8: Each model is shown as the full citation plus the in-text citation format. Physiological effects of estrogen on mouse courtship

Format and style of main manuscript

Main Topics

Privacy Policy

Throughout the body of your paper (primarily the Intro and Discussion), whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. The simplest way to do this is to parenthetically give the author's last name and the year of publication, e.g., (Clarke ).

Privacy FAQs

Automatic works cited and bibliography formatting for MLA, APA and Chicago/Turabian citation styles. Now supports 7th edition of MLA.

About Our Ads

Unpublished conference paper Like a normal conference proceedings, we want to include the name of the entire proceedings, and if there is a specific presentation or . APA Citation Guide: In-Text Citations (How to Cite Within your Paper) Learn the intricacies of APA Citation Style. APA is the citation style used by the Health Professions, Sciences, and Social Sciences.

Cookie Info

Dec 21,  · To cite a paper APA style, start with the author's last name and first initial, and the year of publication. Then, list the title of the paper, where you found it, and the date that you accessed it. In a paper, use a parenthetical reference with the last name of the author and the publication year%(1). Papers helps you collect and curate the research material that you're passionate about. This award winning reference manager will improve the way you find, organize, read, cite and share.