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❶You read a article by Linhares and Brum that cites an earlier article, by Frederick. There are two types of citations:

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General Format
APA Handbook (6th Edition)
Why do I Need to Cite?

Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author s , the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Including citations in your research projects is a very important component of the research process.

The American Psychological Association is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to , members, they provide educational opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. They also have numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating their own specific citation style, which is a popular way to create citations.

This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use this citation style quite frequently. Click here for more information. This format was first developed in in order to form a standardized way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards and guidelines, individuals were recognizing the work of other authors by including bits and pieces of information, in random order.

You can probably imagine how difficult it was to understand the sources that were used for research projects! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at a citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created this citation style. This citation style is currently in its 6th edition and was released in In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed.

In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included in the publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation.

In , the American Psychological Association released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technological advances and resources.

There are two types of citations: In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project.

Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer and include all of the information needed to locate the source yourself. Full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here.

Books have a certain format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine is a citation generator that will make the citation process much easier for you.

In-text, or parenthetical citations , are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information.

Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In-text citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference.

They are formatted like this:. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact portion of text themselves. According to a study done by Kent and Giles , student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers.

Head to our homepage to learn more. Click here to learn more about crediting work. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch.

See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for citations varies based on the source type, but some citations use this general format:. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow.

The names of authors are written in reverse order. Include the initials for the first and middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format:.

If you plan on using a free APA citation tool, such as Citation Machine, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and only the year for journals and all other sources.

If no date is found on the source, include the initials, n. If using Citation Machine, our citation generator will add the correct format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title.

A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In this citation style, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks.

They are either placed in italics or not. When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.

If you feel it would be helpful to include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter.

Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. If you are using Citation Machine, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher.

It is acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. Other common terms, such as Inc. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews , 11 9 , After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period.

DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations.

If using Citation Machine to develop your citation, the online publication information will be automatically replaced by the DOI.

Citation Machine will properly cite your online sources for you. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. Author Last name, First initial. Last name, First initial. The race between education and technology. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums. Last name of chapter author, First initial. Last name of Editor Ed. The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites.

Comparing first- and continuing-generation college students. American Journal of Distance Education, 27 2 , What is a DOI? A DOI is a unique identifying number for an article. In the database record for an article, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https: This link will allow a reader to link to doi.

Toward a psychophysiology of expertise: Focal magnetic gamma bursts as a signature of memory chunks and the aptitude of chess players. Journal of Psychophysiology, 20 4 , The transition to retirement: Stages and factors that influence retirement adjustment.

International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 59 1 , Find the journal's homepage. Do a Web search to find the address of the homepage of the journal that published the article and include it in your citation. Please be aware, however, that the full text of articles may not actually be available at the journal homepage.

Cannot find the journal's homepage? Executive functioning and alcohol-related aggression. American Psychologist, 59 2 , Problem-solving interactions between mothers and children. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 26 1 , Navy Yard Hill and the founding of Washington City.

Capitol Hill Historian , 2 , Crow rookeries and urban toponyms in the United States. Corvid, 10 1 , New Yorker, 80 35 , Find the magazine's homepage. Do a Web search using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo! Cannot find the magazine's homepage? In this case, do a Web search using a search engine such as Google or Yahoo! Newsweek, 3 , An overview of web archiving.

D-Lib , 18 Android malware on the rise. Psychology Today, 22 3 , Smithsonian, 34 2 , Discover, 26 2 , Tiffany glass and other tales from the crypt.

The New York Times , pp. The page number of a newspaper article is preceded by "p. When an article appears on multiple pages, the page range is preceded by "pp. When an article appears on discontinuous pages, separate the page numbers with a comma ex. When a newspaper uses section letters in its page numbers, these should be included in your citation ex. A1 ", " pp. Human behavior with blogs.

In Y Zheng Ed. A DOI is a unique identifying number for an e-book. In the database record for an e-book, you will see an element that looks like this, which you should include at the end of your APA reference, preceded by "https: Find the publisher's homepage.

Please be aware, however, that the full text of encyclopedia may not actually be available at the publisher's homepage. Cannot find the publisher's homepage? Beyond Mandalay, the road to isolation and xenophobia [Review of the book The river of lost footsteps: Histories of Burma, by T. An untitled book, film, or product review for example, a review covering multiple works: A history of intoxicants, by M.

A search for answers inside America's teenage drug epidemic , by M. Journal of Mental Health, 15 , Follow the correct formatting for the type of publication e. Love, honor, cherish, and buy [Review of the book One perfect day: The selling of the American wedding, by R.

The last light breaking: Life among Alaska's Inupiat Eskimos. Publication manual of the American Psychological Association 6th ed. The biology of aging: Observations and principles 3rd ed. Islands in a far sea: The fate of nature in Hawai'i Rev. University of Hawai'i Press. If volumes in a work or set are published in different years, give the range of years separated by a dash as above.

Tradition and the individual talent. Original work published Note that the page numbers of an article or chapter are preceded by "pp. If an article has been reprinted from a source published earlier, give the original date of publication in the "original work" element of the citation as shown above when using this element, the final period in a citation is omitted.

Working with sample data: Use the URL for the database. Use these URLs for library e-book databases:. The story of success [Kindle DX version]. A canoe-journey of 2, miles in search of the caribou. Resources for gender and sociocultural awareness pp. When using just a chapter from a book the same rules apply regarding DOI or no DOI as listed above, depending on where the book was retrieved. Anonymously analyzing clinical data sets. Sea Turtle Restoration Project. Threats to sea turtles.

If you refer to an entire Web site, you do not need to include an entry for it in your reference list, but must identify the source clearly in the text of your paper. The Sea Turtle Restoration Project homepage presents a wealth of compelling, well-researched information on the struggle to save the world's sea turtles from extinction http: Cross-curricular initiatives in NSCI No official APA format for citing online classroom materials exists - this is merely a recommended format to use in citing such documents.

Continuous inverse optimal control with locally optimal examples. APA does not address what to do with conference papers found in library databases. We suggest that, following the guidelines given for periodical articles, that you use, "Retrieved from" followed by the URL of either the conference itself or the sponsoring organization, located via Google. Concerted effort needed to consolidate and secure Internet connections at federal agencies Publication No.

Sounding the spirit of Cambodia: The living tradition of Khmer music and dance-drama in a Washington, DC community Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from Dissertations and Theses database. Conquering the cold shudder: The origin and evolution of snake eyes Doctoral dissertation. Life and death in Washington DC: An analysis of the Mortality Census data of Master's thesis.

Data pruning Master's thesis. The ship in the storm [Painting]. By Claire Fresches et al. National Gallery of Art. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Eadweard Muybridge and the technological wild West. Why it's time to forget the pecking order at work [video file].

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Looking to format your paper in Chicago style and not sure where to start? Our guide provides everything you need! Learn the basics and fundamentals to creating citations in Chicago format. With numerous examples and visuals, you’ll be citing in Chicago style in no time.

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APA Format Guide to help you create your APA citations. Includes examples of in-text and reference list citations and APA paper format guidelines. BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard.

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Imagine if all the stress of referencing simply vanished. Well, Cite This For Me’s APA citation generator is here to help you - now you can create in-text citations and reference lists in the APA format without all of the usual frustrations of referencing. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations.