Tables are, essentially, lists organized in rows and columns that outlay numerical values, and they are widely used to help the reader process and understand certain derived pieces of data. A table should be used if the author has more information than a simple text would be able to properly cover.
So for example, if the data you need to submit can fit in less than a space of three columns and three rows, it would be recommended that you present it as text.
Figures can mean any pictures, charts, maps, graphs or any kind of illustrations that you want to include in the Results section. Every figure should come with a brief description below it. A photo, for example, should come with the reason why it is there, as well as its source. The most common figures in the Results section are, without a doubt, graphs, as they do a good job in showing connections between data. Although the choice of using tables or figures is up to the author, a good general recommendation is not using tables when trying to prove a connection between certain groups of values.
If you are writing a paper dedicated to a specific treatment, tables would be used to discuss its cumulative effects, while figures would be used to show each treatment effect variation week by week. Also, avoid adding the same data more than once; this should help keep the Results section brief. Graphics formatting is also important. Rules for formatting tables and figures vary with each style guide; however, generally, tables have their name and number posted above them and any notes explaining them underneath.
The writing in the results section should be kept as simple as possible. If however, an unusual statistical method or model is used, its explanation should be included in the Methodology section. Although many students are tempted to add explanations or introductory notes to the section, a direct rendition of available data is usually the most recommended approach. This is an example of a text that contains too many useless words and offers a subjective view of the presented data:.
Keeping it short is vital. If tables and figures are the main components of the results section, repeating all that info in a text form is redundant. What you can do through text, though, is pinpointing the most important pieces of data from the tables and figures and using this text to emphasize their importance and relevance to the central idea.
Also, all tables and figures included should always be referred to in the text - at least once. A proper context is needed for all included figures, and although no direct interpretation of the data is included in the Results section, the reader must know exactly what he or she is looking at, why it is presented to them, and what it means for the central theme of the paper.
There is no need for a conclusion to the Results section, as you can go directly to the Discussion chapter after completing it. Next, do not forget that writing a Results section of your dissertation is still a very time-consuming task. Even though it may seem that most of the work has already been done, it would still be unwise to underestimate this section. The last and probably the most important tip would be to carefully go over your entire dissertation again - after you finish the results section.
Take a break up to a couple of days if the time allows it and come back to your work with a fresh eye. On this stage, it is vital to double check if all the data in your tables, graphs, and figures were properly referenced in the text. Also, you might want to take another critical look at your paper logic in general to make sure everything is clear and to the point.
Writing your Dissertation Results Section. Academic level Undergraduate Bachelor Professional. For this, you need to conduct planned contrasts and report the associated significance values for different comparisons. For instance, you would use MANOVA when testing whether male versus female participants independent variable show a different determination to read a romantic novel dependent variable and a determination to read a crime novel dependent variable.
These tests assess two assumptions: Both tests need to be non-significant in order to assess whether your assumptions are met. If the tests are significant, you need to dig deeper and understand what this means. Following this, you need to report your descriptive statistics, as outlined previously. Here, you are reporting the means and standard deviations for each dependent variable, separately for each group of participants.
You will notice that you are presented with four statistic values and associated F and significance values. These statistics test whether your independent variable has an effect on the dependent variables.
You report the results in the same manner as reporting ANOVA, by noting the F value, degrees of freedom for hypothesis and error , and significance value. However, you also need to report the statistic value of one of the four statistics mentioned above. Finally, you need to look at the results of the Tests of Between-Subjects Effects which you will see in your output.
These tests tell you how your independent variable affected each dependent variable separately. Before reporting the results of your qualitative research, you need to recall what type of research you have conducted. The most common types of qualitative research are interviews, observations, and focus groups — and your research is likely to fall into one of these types. All three types of research are reported in a similar manner. Still, it may be useful if we focus on each of them separately. You have asked your participants questions that explored why they started smoking, why they continue to smoke, and why they wish to quit smoking.
Since your research was organised in this manner, you already have three major themes: You then explore particular reasons why your participants started to smoke, why they continue to smoke, and why they want to quit. Each reason that you identify will act as a subtheme. When reporting the results, you should organise your text in subsections. Each section should refer to one theme. Then, within each section, you need to discuss the subthemes that you discovered in your data.
What you need to do now is to present the findings for each subtheme, while also reporting quotes that best describe your subtheme. You do that for each theme and subtheme. It is also good practice to make a table that lists all your themes, subthemes, and associated quotes.
Several participants noted that they started smoking because they thought smoking was cool. I was shy and I always wanted to be more noticed. Reporting the results of observations If your research has relied on observations, then your task was to observe a particular behaviour in a particular setting. When reporting the results, you first need to categorise your observations. For instance, you might have noticed that the therapist finds it important to discuss: You can consider these as themes in your observations.
Accordingly, you will want to report each theme separately. You do this by outlining your observation first this can be a conversation or a behaviour that you observed , and then commenting upon it.
Was there something that stressed you out during the last few months? I thought I would lose my job, but that passed. After that, I was breaking up with my girlfriend. But between those things, I was fine. And was there any difference in your symptoms while you were and while you were not stressed? Now that I think of it, they were mostly present when I went through those periods.
Instead, she has guided him, through questions, to connect his symptoms to stress. This seems beneficial because the patient has arrived at the link between stress and symptoms himself. Reporting the results of focus groups Focus groups are similar to interviews, except that they are conducted with a group of people rather than with one individual at a time.
Accordingly, the analysis of data obtained through a focus group is similar to the analysis of interview data.
You may find it useful to read the above section on reporting the results of interviews. You have transcribed your focus group sessions and have extracted themes from the data. You have discovered a wide variety of reasons why people prefer one of the two drinks. When reporting your results, you should have two sections: Within each section, you need to identify specific reasons for these preferences.
You should connect these specific reasons to particular quotes. The first reason why some participants favoured Schweppes over Coca-Cola is that Schweppes is considered as less sweet. Several participants agreed on this notion. Another participant agreed by noting: A glass of cold Schweppes is much more refreshing.
In conclusion… Once you complete the results section of your dissertation, you will likely feel like you've accomplished something comparable to a marathon. And it feels great, doesn't it? As we have seen, writing up qualitative results is easier than writing quantitative results. Yet, even reporting statistics is not that hard, especially if you have a good guide to help you.
Hopefully, this guide has reduced your worries and increased your confidence that you can write up the results section of your dissertation without too many difficulties. Recent Posts How often should you reference? A great example of a reflective essay How to write a captivating conclusion to your essay How to write a dissertation literature review: How to structure an essay Top 10 essay referencing tips.
The Ultimate Guide to Writing a Dissertation. Writing up the results section of your dissertation. So, you have overcome the colossal task that is doing your dissertation research — either primary or secondary, depending on which avenue you chose.
Very well done you. Now you are faced with analysing your data and writing up the results section of your dissertation. If this is the position in which you find yourself, and your heart rate spiked just reading these words, then you have come to the right place. In order to write up your quantitative results correctly, you must first recall several basic things about your own research.
First, you need to recall what you have assessed — or what your main variables are. Second, you need to determine if your variables were categorical or continuous.
These statistics aim to summarise your data set, either by focusing on specific groups or on the whole sample. When commenting upon the results, you can say: Descriptive statistics for all variables used in research:. The above example illustrates how you should report descriptive statistics for the whole sample. Descriptive statistics for the determination to read the book, by gender:.
You can report these statistics in this way: Frequencies statistics for all variables used in research:. If you find a correlation, you need to say something like: Here, you report the results by saying: Correlations between all variables used in research:. Correlations between all variables used in research, before and after controlling for a covariate:.
Regression analysis is slightly more complex to report, because you need to report whether all assumptions for the analysis have been met this is especially likely if you are doing your graduate dissertation. These are the specific points that you need to address in order to make sure that all assumptions have been met: Once you conclude that your assumptions have been met, you write something like: Model summary for regression:. You can report all these results in the following way: As we have seen, correlation and regression are done when all your variables are continuous.
You can report the results of the chi-square analysis in the following way: You can say something like: You can report your results in the following manner: ANCOVA, or the analysis of covariance, is used when you want to test the main and interaction effect of categorical variables on a continuous dependent variable, while controlling for the effects of other continuous variables or covariates.
You can report the results in the following manner: The final test outlined in this guide is MANOVA, which is used when you want to see if there are any differences between independent groups on more than one continuous dependent variable.
If you have used semi-structured interviews, then your qualitative data was analysed by conducting a thematic analysis. Thus, your task was to transcribe interviews, read through them, assign codes to particular quotes, and group codes to form themes. If your research has relied on observations, then your task was to observe a particular behaviour in a particular setting.
Could it be that stress intensifies your symptoms? I never thought of it. I guess it seems logical. Focus groups are similar to interviews, except that they are conducted with a group of people rather than with one individual at a time. Once you complete the results section of your dissertation, you will likely feel like you've accomplished something comparable to a marathon.
Dissertation findings and discussion sections.
When writing a dissertation or thesis, the results and discussion sections can be both the most interesting as well as the most challenging sections to write. You may choose to write these sections separately, or combine them into a single chapter, depending on your university’s guidelines and your own preferences.
Organizing your data. Making your Results section easy to read is the most important part. There is a lot of information that needs to be crammed into a relatively small space, with the help of a .
Presenting Your Dissertation Results & Discussion. December 23, April 28, Jane Dissertation Research, You may think that there will be too much information to be included in this section, but would like to refer to a number of extra and supporting graphs and charts that should be touched on in the dissertation research, this is. Sometimes the findings or results section of a dissertation comes in the same chapter as the main discussion. You will need to check with your supervisor what your university department’s rules are regarding these two sections.
How to write up the results section of your dissertation, broken down into both quantitative and qualitative results so you can focus on what applies. Oct 27, · If your dissertation includes specific sub-questions or hypotheses, you can discuss the results on this basis. Answering these questions and testing your hypotheses is an important step that prepares you to answer your main question (which you will do in your conclusion section)/5(18).