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❶While researchers are compensated financially, with intellectual rewards and social status, society expects more than a high quality product. As previously mentioned this organization is typically family-managed and operated with its traditional methods of approach immutable.

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Like anyone claiming to act in the name or interests of society, there is a largely unwritten, unexpressed contract. While researchers are compensated financially, with intellectual rewards and social status, society expects more than a high quality product.

This expectation is expressed to some degree in the "broader impacts" criterion for evaluation and funding of National Science Foundation grant proposals, the inclusion of "significance" as a criterion for evaluating National Institutes of Health applications, and in the various formulations of the America COMPETES Act Social responsibility has been identified as the responsibility embodied in the Paramountcy principle, the fundamental and primary ethical principle of engineering included in the professional engineers code of ethics: The social responsibility of scientists requires that they also attend to the foreseeable societal impacts of their work, particularly as these impacts affect the safety, health or welfare of the society.

In part that responsibility flows from privileged status. For example, researchers are allowed to carry out experiments as they deem appropriate with relatively little oversight.

An exception is research that involves research subjects whose humane treatment, whether laboratory animals or humans, is a responsibility that goes with the privilege and is explicitly expected under the rubric of the responsible conduct of research as well as spelled out in regulations that codify the principles of bioethics. But the social responsibilities of researchers extend beyond upholding the ethical standards of society. The Uppsala Code of Ethics for Scientists highlights the responsibility of scientists to refrain from, and speak out against, weapons research and other scientific research with the potential for detrimental consequences for the environment, and for present and future generations Gustafsson et al.

Furthermore, researchers' special knowledge that comes from their work, education and expertise enables them to understand the limits of the science and when its application e. Researchers have a responsibility to oppose the misuse of their work.

Moreover, because of their special knowledge researchers are in a position to contribute substantially to public understanding of science and technology, and thereby to a democratic society, by promoting an informed citizenry. It seems plausible that these larger notions of responsibility underlie the relatively recent addition of discussions of "the scientist as a responsible member of society, contemporary ethical issues in biomedical research, and the environmental and societal impacts of scientific research" NIH as appropriate elements of education in the responsible conduct of research.

While research scandals have been receiving increasing attention in the US, in Europe there has been growing awareness and concern regarding the intended and unintended environmental and societal impacts of technological and scientific advances of which the Uppsala Code is an example. The European macroethical approach to science ethics education arises from a full-throated declaration of the goals and role of higher education in society.

In the last 10 years, as part of an effort to harmonize educational requirements at institutions of higher learning across Europe, an overarching educational framework has been adopted that highlights the widespread and strongly-held European view of social responsibility Bologna Process The framework of qualifications for European Higher Education EHEA includes the expectation that all graduates, including those in science and engineering, "have the ability to gather and interpret relevant data Consistent with the idea that part of the social responsibility of researchers is to contribute to the development of an informed citizenry, the EHEA framework indicates that all graduates are expected to be able to "communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist audiences" at the bachelor's level , "communicate their conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale underpinning these [conclusions], to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously" at the master's level , and "communicate with their peers Educational programs in science ethics in Europe and the US approach the topic from different directions for understandable reasons.

In Europe, the macroethical approach is primary. However, providing "the big picture" is not enough. Trainees need to understand what is expected of them by peers in their field and what they themselves can expect as members of the global research community.

At a minimum, this is responsible research conduct: It is noteworthy that the EHEA framework expects that graduates at the doctoral level "have demonstrated the ability to conceive, design, [and] implement The microethical approach in the US is an essential beginning because it fulfills the fundamental educational criterion of starting where people are, in their own environment, acknowledging and validating the foundational ethical principles that underlie the research process.

But it is insufficient because it does not adequately recognize the larger societal context of which research and engineering are a part. James Rest , , Muriel Bebeau and others have shown that moral development can and, with attention and nurturing, does continue throughout formal education as individuals learn about and appreciate their personal and professional role in society as members, professionals, contributors, and citizens.

Yet, as employers, students and their families have called for an increasingly specialized education to meet the needs of the modern, technological world, US higher education has moved toward specialization at the expense of "breadth requirements" - that is, the very courses outside the core of science where students might learn about responsible research conduct and other ethical concerns.

At the same time, while it is clear that science and engineering curricula should include stand-alone courses examining the ethical, legal and social policy implications of science and technology, along with responsible research conduct these issues must also be integrated into core courses in the form of modules, problem sets, exam questions and as elements of graduate theses. Social responsibility and responsible research conduct are the two essential sides of ethical science.

Both are necessary for an adequate education in science and engineering. It should be noted that macroethics includes not only collective professional responsibility, but also the decisions made by society about technology. Bebeau, Muriel Can Ethics be Taught? A Look at the Evidence. Journal of the American College of Dentists 58 1: Bologna Qualifications Framework http: The Uppsala Code of Ethics for Scientists.

Journal of Peace Research 21 4: Ways of thinking about and teaching ethical problem solving: Microethics and macroethics in engineering. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 3: The quest for a code of professional ethics: An intellectual and moral confusion.

In Rosemary Chalk, Mark S. Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process, Vol. These definitions were chosen mainly because, they added to the scope of business ethical behaviour and societal responsibility, it brings clarity to the concept of values and morals and overall contribution to society as individuals and businesses.

Ethical standards helps to the shape both the internal and external construct of any organization. Companies that rely on ethical standards which includes values and morals rely less on legislation from central or state government. The belief that business ethics is an essential element in any organization influences the companys impact towards its social responsibility. Organizations involved in the wholesale supply of goods and raw materials, such as Marpol Distribution Limited should strive to maintain or incorporate the necessary values and morals to aid in its decision making process.

According to Hartman ,p2 , who made the suggestion that ethics involves judgments as to good and bad, right and wrong, and what ought to be.

This therefore will have a major impact in the dynamics of the organization. A lack of business ethics and social responsibility at Marpol Distribution Limited With intentions of implementing ethical practices into the business procedures, one must firstly understand business ethics which requires the identification of ethical issues within the organization.

Ethical issues are identifiable problems, situations, or opportunities that requires a person to choose from among several actions that may be evaluated as right or wrong, ethical or unethical highered. In most cases this usually implicates much deliberation between choosing monetary gain over conducting oneself fittingly. As previously mentioned this organization is typically family-managed and operated with its traditional methods of approach immutable.

While remaining old-fashioned might work in favour of some companies, it has had the reverse effect on Marpol Distribution Limited. Quality assurance is a major facet in the operations of Marpol Distribution as the expectations of customers of this supply company is quite high together with responsibilities to societal contribution and development.

The issue arises therefore, when a lack of standard up brings in relations of values and morals are recognised. Values tend to be seen as end goals sought by individual and vary from person to person based on their desires for profit, law, virtue or charity See Appendix. Morals tend to be seen as rules or duties that govern behaviour in our personal interactions they are our personal guiding principles Optimal.

Generally, ethics can be seen to be the same for people within the same culture Hartman, , p2. Companies like Marpol Distribution Limited, led by its vision statement to ensure profit and continuous growth has had negative impact of ethical behaviour. This therefore has resulted in a loss of customer supplier relationship and indirectly affected its profit margin The consequences of unethical behaviour and unethical business institutions are too serious to be ignored Des Jardins, p.

As suggested by Des Jardins, business ethics are simply too serious for Marpol Distribution to ignore. Corporate Governance or the lack thereof has certainly contributed negatively to the current situation of Marpol Distribution Limited. This is demonstrated as this profit driven organisation fails to emulate the necessary attributes to generate good governance such as responsiveness values of fairness, accountability, responsibility and transparency emphasis on non-monetary aspects of operations etc.

This is also extended to unethical leadership which constitutes employee insolence as it has been suggested that employees emulate the behaviours of those above them based on their perception of ethics observed Davis In addition, the company has become loyal to its family-run business style and as a result the recruitment process that exists within this company has failed them seeing as the workforce comprises of unskilled and unqualified family members who have prevailed over a more appropriate workforce.

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Problem The Role of Ethics and Social Responsibility when developing a strategic plan - consider stakeholder needs Ethics paper: write - word paper in which you do the following: explain the role of ethics and social responsibility in developing a strategic plan while considering stakeholder needs and agendas.

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