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Phenomenology (philosophy)

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❶Phenomenology makes use of a variety of methods including interviews, conversations, participant observation, action research, focus meetings, analysis of diaries and other personal texts.

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Heidegger himself states their differences this way:. According to Heidegger, philosophy was not at all a scientific discipline, but more fundamental than science itself. According to him science is only one way of knowing the world with no special access to truth.

Furthermore, the scientific mindset itself is built on a much more "primordial" foundation of practical, everyday knowledge. Husserl was skeptical of this approach, which he regarded as quasi-mystical, and it contributed to the divergence in their thinking.

Instead of taking phenomenology as prima philosophia or a foundational discipline, Heidegger took it as a metaphysical ontology: Phenomena are not the foundation or Ground of Being.

Neither are they appearances, for, as Heidegger argues in Being and Time , an appearance is "that which shows itself in something else," while a phenomenon is "that which shows itself in itself. While for Husserl we would have to abstract from all concrete determinations of our empirical ego, to be able to turn to the field of pure consciousness, Heidegger claims that "the possibilities and destinies of philosophy are bound up with man's existence, and thus with temporality and with historicality.

However, ontological being and existential being are different categories, so Heidegger's conflation of these categories is, according to Husserl's view, the root of Heidegger's error. Husserl charged Heidegger with raising the question of ontology but failing to answer it, instead switching the topic to the Dasein, the only being for whom Being is an issue. That is neither ontology nor phenomenology, according to Husserl, but merely abstract anthropology.

To clarify, perhaps, by abstract anthropology, as a non-existentialist searching for essences, Husserl rejected the existentialism implicit in Heidegger's distinction between beings qua existents as things in reality and their Being as it unfolds in Dasein's own reflections on its being-in-the-world, wherein being becomes present to us, that is, is unconcealed.

Some researchers in phenomenology in particular in reference to Heidegger's legacy see possibilities of establishing dialogues with traditions of thought outside of the so-called Western philosophy , particularly with respect to East-Asian thinking , and despite perceived differences between "Eastern" and "Western". There are also recent signs of the reception of phenomenology and Heidegger's thought in particular within scholarly circles focused on studying the impetus of metaphysics in the history of ideas in Islam and Early Islamic philosophy such as in the works of the Lebanese philosopher Nader El-Bizri ; [37] perhaps this is tangentially due to the indirect influence of the tradition of the French Orientalist and phenomenologist Henri Corbin , and later accentuated through El-Bizri's dialogues with the Polish phenomenologist Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka.

In addition, the work of Jim Ruddy in the field of comparative philosophy , combined the concept of Transcendental Ego in Husserl's phenomenology with the concept of the primacy of self-consciousness in the work of Sankaracharya. In the course of this work, Ruddy uncovered a wholly new eidetic phenomenological science, which he called "convergent phenomenology.

James Moor has argued that computers show up policy vacuums that require new thinking and the establishment of new policies. For the phenomenologist, society and technology co-constitute each other; they are each other's ongoing condition, or possibility for being what they are. For them technology is not just the artifact.

Rather, the artifact already emerges from a prior 'technological' attitude towards the world Heidegger For Heidegger the essence of technology is the way of being of modern humans—a way of conducting themselves towards the world—that sees the world as something to be ordered and shaped in line with projects, intentions and desires—a 'will to power' that manifests itself as a 'will to technology'.

However, according to Heidegger this 'pre-technological' age or mood is one where humans' relation with the world and artifacts, their way of being disposed, was poetic and aesthetic rather than technological enframing.

In critiquing the artificial intelligence AI programme, Hubert Dreyfus argues that the way skill development has become understood in the past has been wrong. He argues, this is the model that the early artificial intelligence community uncritically adopted.

In opposition to this view, he argues, with Heidegger, that what we observe when we learn a new skill in everyday practice is in fact the opposite. We most often start with explicit rules or preformulated approaches and then move to a multiplicity of particular cases, as we become an expert.

His argument draws directly on Heidegger's account in "Being and Time" of humans as beings that are always already situated in-the-world. As humans 'in-the-world', we are already experts at going about everyday life, at dealing with the subtleties of every particular situation; that is why everyday life seems so obvious. Thus, the intricate expertise of everyday activity is forgotten and taken for granted by AI as an assumed starting point.

It is the assumed, and forgotten, horizon of everyday practice that makes technological devices and solutions show up as meaningful. If we are to understand technology we need to 'return' to the horizon of meaning that made it show up as the artifacts we need, want and desire.

We need to consider how these technologies reveal or disclose us. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about phenomenology in philosophy. For phenomenology as a research method, see Phenomenography. For phenomenology as an approach in psychology, see Phenomenology psychology.

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Antipositivism Deconstruction Ecophenomenology Existentialism Geneva School Gestalt therapy Hermeneutics Heterophenomenology Ideasthesia Important publications in phenomenological psychology List of phenomenologists Phenomenography Phenomenological sociology Phenomenological Thomism Phenomenology architecture Phenomenology of religion Phenomenology psychology Philosophical anthropology Poststructuralism Psychodrama Qualia Social constructionism Structuralism Structuration theory Technoethics.

Dialogues in Philosophy, Mental and Neuro Sciences, 7 2: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Consciousness and the Self. New Youk, Dordrecht, London: Retrieved 17 December The fateful separation of transcendental philosophy and psychology".

Northwestern University Press, , pg. Philosopher of Infinite Tasks. Between Good and Evil. Marx's Method , Routledge, , p. Its Problem and Promise , Routledge, , p. Castoriadis' Naturphilosophie " , Cosmos and History: Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 22 May A Study in Analytic Phenomenology , Routledge, A Post-Analytic Turn , Bloomsbury, , p.

This use of the word evidence may seem strange in English, but is more common in German, which is the language Husserl wrote in.

My info source was http: It was not copied and pasted but rephrased for copyright reasons. Nader El-Bizri , 'On Dwelling: Common Morality and Computing. Ethics and Information Technology 1 1. Accessed 4 May A Companion to Phenomenology and Existentialism.

Edited by Hubert L. Dreyfus and Mark A. Blackwell, Handbook of Phenomenological Aesthetics. Contributions To Phenomenology, Vol. The London Philosophy Study Guide offers many suggestions on what to read, depending on the student's familiarity with the subject: Robert Sokolowski, "Introduction to Phenomenology Cambridge: Cambridge University Press — An excellent non-historical introduction to phenomenology.

Herbert Spiegelberg , "The Phenomenological Movement: A Historical Introduction," 3rd ed. The most comprehensive source on the development of the phenomenological movement. This module provides an overview of research methods for phenomenological studies and describes means of data collection. The methodology used in phenomenology differs than most other research methodology because the goal is to describe a lived experience, rather than to explain or quantify it in any way.

Phenomenology is solely concerned with the study of the experience from the perspective of the participants, therefore, the methodology does not include a hypothesis or any preconceived ideas about the data collected.

Phenomenology makes use of a variety of methods including interviews, conversations, participant observation, action research, focus meetings, analysis of diaries and other personal texts. In general, the methodology is designed to be less structured and more open-ended to encourage the participant to share details regarding their experience. Surveys and questionnaires that are commonly used in other research methods to gather information from participants would be too structured and would not allow the participant to freely share.

In other words, phenomenology emphasizes subjectivity. The goal of phenomenological research methods is to maximize the depth of the information collected and therefore, less structured interviews are most effective. Following is a list of principles and qualities applied to phenomenological methodology and data collection:. Several researchers have described variations of the for the steps used in phenomenology.

The following diagram provides an example of a more detailed description of the steps in a phenomenology study. Data analysis will be the focus of the next module in this series. Phenomenological Research Methods — Contains a detailed descriptive of different types of phenomenological research methods.

This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Select an expiration date. About Us Contact Us. Search Community Search Community. A research methodology best learned by doing it. Hermeneutic phenomenology is a qualitative research methodology that arose out of and remains closely tied to phenomenological philosophy, a strand of continental philosophy. Husserl argued that we are always already in the world and that our only certainty is our experience of our world, thus to understand the structure of consciousness can serve as the foundation for all knowledge Husserl, They were not interested in phenomenology as a philosophy but as a unique way to understand human existence van Manen, We are enmeshed in our world and immediately experience our world as meaningful because our world—with its other people, its histories and cultures, and its events—precedes any attempt on our part to understand it or explain it.

The purpose of hermeneutic phenomenological research is to bring to light and reflect upon the lived meaning of this basic experience. Researchers attempts to describe phenomena as they appear in everyday life before they have been theorized, interpreted, explained, and otherwise abstracted, while knowing that any attempt to do this is always tentative, contingent, and never complete.

While having a relatively simple objective, doing hermeneutic phenomenological research poses many challenges. First, the object of our interest is experience before it is put into language and yet that experience cannot be accessed other than through descriptive account. Second, what do we do with the accounts once we have them? While there are a range of activities that may be used, including as line-by-line reading, thematic analysis, and existential analysis see: This is not to say, however, that phenomenology is not a rigorous or specific approach.

Instead, it acknowledges that no one approach is suitable to all phenomena. The Chinese philosopher Confucius famously wrote: I see and I remember.


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Phenomenology in business research focuses on experiences, events and occurrences with disregard or minimum regard for the external and physical reality. Phenomenology, also known as non-positivism, is a variation of interpretivism, along with other variations such as hermeneutics, symbolic interactionism and others.

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Phenomenology is different from all other research methods because its field of investigation is different from other methods. What then is this difference? To understand this difference first of all, phenomenology should be differentiated from natural sciences’ research methods.

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Phenomenology Methods & Data Collection This module provides an overview of research methods for phenomenological studies and describes means of data collection. Learning Objectives: List and describe the steps involved in a phenomenology . The second step in the methodology of phenomenological research is, “bracket and interpret researcher bias and expectations” (Campbell, Introductive Methods to Qualitative Research: Course Notes, n.d., p. 4). This is identified as a best practice of the method (Campbell, Introductive Methods to Qualitative Research: Course Notes, n.d., p. 4).

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In this volume, Clark Moustakas clearly discusses the theoretical underpinnings of phenomenology, based on the work of Husserl and others, and takes the reader step-by-step through the process of conducting a phenomenological study. Phenomenology was originally a branch of philosophy, so Moustakas spends the first pages of his book explaining the philosophy underlying the research method. When he does get into the methodology, he is thorough, but not necessarily crystal clear/5(54).