Although, bronchiodilators are used in asthma therapy they have no effect on the inflammatory process. Bronchiodilators are a class of drug that relaxes airway smooth muscle by increasing cAMP and opening potassium channels. Corticosteriods on the other hand are now considered the first line of treatment for patients with severe and chronic asthma.
Corticosteriods bind to a receptor in the cytosol, which translocates to the nucleus and binds DNA to activate genes.
The main action of corticosteriods is to suppress multiple inflammatory genes, such as cytokines, inflammatory enzymes and adhesion molecules. Due to the fact that release of mediators from mast cells in asthma is IgE-E dependent one approach would be to block the activation of IgE using blocking antibodies that do not result in mast cells.
RhuMAb reduces early and late responses to inhaled allergen and eosinophils counts from induced sputum. Although reduction in early response to allergen, which is due to mast cells bound to IgE the reduction in late response and sputum eosinophils is unexpected, but it could be explained by blocking the effect of IgE on low affinity IgE receptors such as CD23 on antigen presenting cells APC.
Anti-IgE in mice inhibits IL-4,5 secretion and pulmonary eosinophilia by blocking Th2-cell activation in response to allergen, and this is mimicked A case study approach is very useful where a researcher wis In five pages asthma diagnosis and treatment relevant to the function of the lungs is addressed with the examination of a healthy Moreover, T-Lymphocytes, in particular the TH2 subset, are also of vital importance in the inflammatory response since they are involved in the production of important cytokines including IL-4 and IL IL-4 is responsible for the activation of the humoral arm of the immune response leading to the production of IgE antibodies while IL-5 is involved in the recruitment and proliferation of eosinophils McFadden, There is a variety of stimuli and allergens which can trigger the inflammatory response in asthmatic individuals.
The acute exacerbation of asthma in response to an allergen includes an IgE mediated response involving the mast cells and the T and B lymphocytes. On the first encounter with an allergen, there is processing of the antigen by the dendritic cells residing in the airway epithelium.
These antigens are then presented to the T lymphocytes, which leads to their differentiation into the TH2 subset and the production of IgE antibodies. The IgE hence generated, circulates in the blood and binds to the mast cells. On subsequent exposure to the allergen, these IgE antibodies are stimulated and lead to mast cell degranulation causing an immediate immune response whereby preformed mediators stored in mast cell vesicles are released. There is another subsequent late phase of the immune response which occurs six to eight hours later whereby newly synthesized immune mediators are released McFadden, As mentioned above, the clinical presentation of asthma includes the classic triad of dyspnea, cough and wheezing often referred to as sine qua non.
The cough is usually initially non-productive but towards the end of the episode there is presence of thick, stringy mucus. The wheezing is present in both phases of respiration with the expiratory phase being characteristically prolonged. There may also be associated symptoms of tachypnea, tachycardia and mild systolic hypertension. Over the course of the disease, there is over inflation of the lungs resulting from increased residual volume and hence an increase in the anterioposterior diameter of the chest.
On clinical examination, the most pertinent findings include the use of accessory muscles of ventilation including the sternocleidomastoid and a paradoxical pulse McFadden, On the basis of the frequency and severity of symptoms, asthma has been classified into four major categories viz.
This classification has important implications in the treatment of asthma which is done in a stepwise manner based on the severity of the symptoms McFadden, In conclusion, asthma is an episodic, chronic, relapsing, remitting disease affecting the small airways of the tracheobronchial tree which is brought about by airway hyperressponsiveness to a variety of stimuli, mucosal edema and increased mucous production leading to the clinical triad of paroxysmal dyspnea, cough and persistent wheezing.
If you have asthma you should stay away from this list of triggers. Smoking, dust mites, most pets, cock roaches, indoor and outdoor mold, strong odors, sprays, and pollen.
And keep your self healthy. Try to get rid of all the triggers out of your house as you can, as such triggers up above.
That should help you to stay healthy and your asthma symptoms down. You should exercise daily, drink lots of fluids, and avoid from getting a cold, also avoid eating junk food. People usually get asthma because it runs in their family. Asthma will last for the rest of your life. Asthma can not be cured it can only be treated. The treatment is usually using inhalers which help open up the air ways in your lungs prescribed by doctors and getting rid of the triggers in your house plus seeing your doctor.
Children can usually out grow asthma between the ages , but ages 11 and up can not out grow it. So children have a bigger advantage of getting rid of their asthma than adults are. Children start out by wheezing. No one is more susceptible to asthma. Except children can usually out grow it.
With human race everyone is equal to asthma. Over 17 million Americans suffer from asthma. If you would like more information on asthma go to i breath.
- Exercise Induced Asthma "Asthma is a pulmonary disease with the following characteristics: 1) airway obstruction that is reversible in most patients either spontaneously or with treatment; 2) airway inflammation; and 3) increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli" (Enright, , p. ).
This essay will discuss on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, medical management and clinical manifestations of asthma. It will also cover the client education needed to provide for those with asthma, asthma's risk factors and its prognosis.
Asthma sourcebook: Basic consumer health information about allergic, exercise-induced, occupational, and other types of asthma, including facts about causes, risk factors, symptoms, and diagnostic tests and featuring details about treating asthma with medication and other therapies. The age on asthma-onset should also be considered. Although asthma in children and adults share similar characteristics, there are significant differences between them. For example, adult-onset asthma develops sensitization to occupational factors and are often misdiagnosed for COPD or chronic bronchitis (Holgate et al. ).
Asthma is a condition in the airways of your lungs. It tightens your muscles surrounding your air ways and there is swelling plus irritation in your airways called inflammation. Asthma is a long-term, otherwise known as a chronic disease, which occurs in the respiratory system. The disease causes inflammation, spasms, or tightening in the bronchial tubes, which are the passage way to the .