Population is one of these problems. The present population explosion and baby-boom is a very serious problem. It is becoming more and more alarming day by day. The rapid growth of population in India has nullified most of our achievements in the fields of economics, industrialisation, employment generation, planning and development.
With the result that there is no check on increase in poverty, misery, diseases, dissatisfaction, frustration, unemployment and illiteracy. Even the bare necessities of life are being denied to the people, and millions and millions of citizens are living under the line of poverty. In spite of our planned development and scientific progress, the spectre of starvation has been staring the masses. The reasons behind this rapid growth of our population are too obvious to be ignored.
Early marriage, great fertility in Indian women, decline in the rate of mortality because of modern facilities in medicine, surgery and health care, illiteracy and lack of proper education in family planning, etc. Though child marriage has been banned, yet it prevails as a social custom in many states and every year thousands of child marriages are performed before the very eyes of the custodians of the law.
The tropical climate of the country helps the high degree of fertility among Indian women. Here a girl of years old is mature enough to deliver a child if married.
People in India still consider children as divine gifts. Most of the people in villages and slums in the cities are totally unaware of the evil consequences of a large and unplanned family.
The people in rural areas, being ignorant and superstitious, believe in divine dispensation in the moulding of a family and refuse to adopt the measures of family planning. The Malthusian spectre has been haunting India in spite of our family planning programme and population policy. According to Malthus population increases in geometrical progression while resources of sustenance increase only in arithmetical progression. Malthus would have been happy to see his theory come true in India, had he been alive.
By the turn of this century we shall have a population of million. Every minute we have about 45 additional mouths to feed. The longevity and falling death rate further aggravates our population problem. According to the estimates of the demographers, with the present rate of growth in population, India would soon become the most populous country in the world and China would be relegated to the second place.
The baby-boom in India reduces the quality of life and increases the problems of unemployment, health, family-welfare, housing and many such others. The chronic problem becomes even worse because of illiteracy and ignorance. People in rural India frequently indulge in sex as a diversion without using the means of contraceptives and family planning. To fight this danger of ever-increasing population some strict and urgent measures should be taken.
More funds should be allocated for family planning, mother and child care and birth control programmes under the Five Year Plan. More and more sterilization facilities coupled with increased monetary incentives should be provided in the villages and towns.
Child-marriages should be dealt with a heavy hand and marriage registration should be made compulsory. Without registration no marriage should be considered legal.
As far marriages and divorces are concerned, there should be a uniform civil code, and no discrimination should be exercised on the basis of religion, etc. A mass propaganda and education programme should be launched through radio, T. If the present rate of birth does not come down in near future, it would be disastrous for the country, and then ultimately we would be constrained to resort to such unpleasant means as compulsory sterilisation.
It is better that we use more and more sterilisation, loops, condoms, oral contraceptives, etc. Population Problem of India. Population has always had the tendency of growing but, as long as it is within the limits of acceptability and management, it is very welcome. However, in India as we all know, the growth of population is all proportions to its other achievements. India is the most thickly populated country of the world.
This population growth if left unchecked will automatically allow absolutely no impact on the development of the country, in any other sphere. No matter how many and how vast our development programmes may be, this disproportionate growth of population will nullify it all.
For instance, if a home is big enough for four people to live in very comfortably and the population rises to six. As noted by Professor Robert M. Young, Malthus dropped his chapters on natural theology from the 2nd edition onwards.
Also, the essay became less of a personal response to Godwin and Condorcet. A Summary View on the Principle of Population was published in The author was identified as Rev. Malthus wrote A Summary View for those who did not have the leisure to read the full essay and, as he put it, "to correct some of the misrepresentations which have gone abroad respecting two or three of the most important points of the Essay". A Summary View ends with a defense of the Principle of Population against the charge that it "impeaches the goodness of the Deity, and is inconsistent with the letter and spirit of the scriptures".
See main article Thomas Malthus for more. Malthus became subject to extreme personal criticism. People who knew nothing about his private life criticised him both for having no children and for having too many.
In , Shelley , berating Malthus as a priest, called him "a eunuch and a tyrant". In the 20th century an editor of the Everyman edition of Malthus claimed that Malthus had practised population control by begetting eleven girls. Garrett Hardin provides an overview of such personal comments. The position held by Malthus as professor at the Haileybury training college, to his death in , gave his theories some influence over Britain's administration of India.
Concerns about Malthus's theory helped promote the idea of a national population census in the UK. Government official John Rickman became instrumental in the carrying out of the first modern British census in , under Pitt's administration. In the s Malthus's writings strongly influenced Whig reforms which overturned Tory paternalism and brought in the Poor Law Amendment Act of Malthus convinced most economists that even while high fertility might increase the gross output , it tended to reduce output per capita.
David Ricardo and Alfred Marshall admired Malthus, and so came under his influence. Early converts to his population theory included William Paley. Despite Malthus's opposition to contraception , his work exercised a strong influence on Francis Place — , whose neo-Malthusian movement became the first to advocate contraception.
Place published his Illustrations and Proofs of the Principles of Population in William Godwin criticized Malthus's criticisms of his own arguments in his book On Population Mill considered the criticisms of Malthus made thus far to have been superficial.
Carey maintained that the only situation in which the means of subsistence will determine population growth is one in which a given society is not introducing new technologies or not adopting forward-thinking governmental policy, and that population regulated itself in every well-governed society, but its pressure on subsistence characterized the lower stages of civilization. Another strand of opposition to Malthus's ideas started in the middle of the 19th century with the writings of Friedrich Engels Outlines of a Critique of Political Economy , and Karl Marx Capital , Engels and Marx argued that what Malthus saw as the problem of the pressure of population on the means of production actually represented the pressure of the means of production on population.
They thus viewed it in terms of their concept of the reserve army of labour. In other words, the seeming excess of population that Malthus attributed to the seemingly innate disposition of the poor to reproduce beyond their means actually emerged as a product of the very dynamic of capitalist economy.
Engels called Malthus's hypothesis "the crudest, most barbarous theory that ever existed, a system of despair which struck down all those beautiful phrases about love thy neighbour and world citizenship".
In the Marxist tradition, Lenin sharply criticized Malthusian theory and its neo-Malthusian version,  calling it a "reactionary doctrine" and "an attempt on the part of bourgeois ideologists to exonerate capitalism and to prove the inevitability of privation and misery for the working class under any social system". In England, where Malthus lived, population was rapidly increasing but suitable agricultural land was limited.
Russia, on the other hand, had extensive land with agricultural potential yet a relatively sparse population. In the 20th century, those who regarded Malthus as a failed prophet of doom included an editor of Nature , John Maddox. Economist Julian Lincoln Simon has criticised Malthus's conclusions. Many factors have been identified as having contributed: Each played a role. From the opposite angle, Romanian American economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen , a progenitor in economics and a paradigm founder of ecological economics , has argued that Malthus was too optimistic, as he failed to recognize any upper limit to the growth of population — only, the geometric increase in human numbers is occasionally slowed down checked by the arithmetic increase in agricultural produce, according to Malthus' simple growth model; but some upper limit to population is bound to exist, as the total amount of agricultural land — actual as well as potential — on Earth is finite, Georgescu-Roegen points out.
Machinery , chemical fertilisers and pesticides all rely on mineral resources for their operation, rendering modern agriculture — and the industrialised food processing and distribution systems associated with it — almost as dependent on Earth's mineral stock as the industrial sector has always been.
Georgescu-Roegen cautions that this situation is a major reason why the carrying capacity of Earth — that is, Earth's capacity to sustain human populations and consumption levels — is bound to decrease sometime in the future as Earth's finite stock of mineral resources is presently being extracted and put to use.
Anthropologist Eric Ross depicts Malthus's work as a rationalization of the social inequities produced by the Industrial Revolution , anti-immigration movements, the eugenics movement [ clarification needed ] and the various international development movements.
Despite use of the term "Malthusian catastrophe" by detractors such as economist Julian Simon — , Malthus himself did not write that mankind faced an inevitable future catastrophe. Rather, he offered an evolutionary social theory of population dynamics as it had acted steadily throughout all previous history. Malthusian social theory influenced Herbert Spencer 's idea of the survival of the fittest ,  and the modern ecological-evolutionary social theory of Gerhard Lenski and Marvin Harris.
Huxley openly criticised communist and Roman Catholic attitudes to birth control , population control and overpopulation. Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace each read and acknowledged the role played by Malthus in the development of their own ideas. Darwin referred to Malthus as "that great philosopher",  and said: I happened to read for amusement Malthus on Population The result of this would be the formation of new species.
It was the first great work I had yet read treating of any of the problems of philosophical biology, and its main principles remained with me as a permanent possession, and twenty years later gave me the long-sought clue to the effective agent in the evolution of organic species.
Ronald Fisher commented sceptically on Malthusianism as a basis for a theory of natural selection. John Maynard Smith doubted that famine functioned as the great leveller, as portrayed by Malthus, but he also accepted the basic premises:.
Malthusian ideas continue to have considerable influence. Ehrlich has written several books predicting famine as a result of population increase: The Population Bomb ; Population, resources, environment: In the late s Ehrlich predicted that hundreds of millions would die from a coming overpopulation-crisis in the s. Other examples of work that has been accused of "Malthusianism" include the book The Limits to Growth published by the Club of Rome and the Global report to the then President of the United States Jimmy Carter.
Science-fiction author Isaac Asimov issued many appeals for population-control reflecting the perspective articulated by people from Robert Malthus through Paul R. Ecological economist Herman Daly has recognized the influence of Malthus on his own work on steady-state economics.
More recently [update] , a school of "neo-Malthusian" scholars has begun to link population and economics to a third variable, political change and political violence, and to show how the variables interact. In the early s, Jack Goldstone linked population variables to the English Revolution of — [ citation needed ] and David Lempert devised a model of demographics, economics, and political change in the multi-ethnic country of Mauritius.
Goldstone has since modeled other revolutions by looking at demographics and economics [ citation needed ] and Lempert has explained Stalin 's purges and the Russian Revolution of in terms of demographic factors that drive political economy. These approaches suggest that political ideology follows demographic forces. Malthus, sometimes regarded as the founding father of modern demography,  continues to inspire and influence futuristic visions, such as those of K.
Eric Drexler relating to space advocacy and molecular nanotechnology. As Drexler put it in Engines of Creation Nevertheless, Malthus was essentially right. The Malthusian growth model now bears Malthus's name.
Verhulst developed the logistic growth model favored by so many critics of the Malthusian growth model in only after reading Malthus's essay. Malthus has also inspired retired physics professor, Albert Allen Bartlett , to lecture over 1, times on "Arithmetic, Population, and Energy", promoting sustainable living and explaining the mathematics of overpopulation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. An Essay on the Principle of Population Title page of the original edition of An Essay on the Principle of Population.
Chapter VII, p 44 . Chapter 2, p 8 . Chapter IX, p 72 . Modern synthesis 20th century. The autobiography of Charles Darwin. Condorcet and Other Writers 1 ed. Johnson in St Paul's Church-yard. Retrieved 20 June Oxford World's Classics reprint. Unintended consequences play a major role in economic thought; see the invisible hand and the tragedy of the commons. Johns Hopkins University Press. Marx and Engels on Malthus. Society and Its Environment: University of California Press.
Population in India, according to census was million with about million makes and million females. According to the current projection of the population reference bureau, the Indian population of India probably has the greatest number of street children. New Delhi, Bombay, and Calcutta have around , street children each. One of the most interesting stories of population control comes from Kerala.
Here the population growth has stabilized at zero even though per capita incomes are low. Kerala with the help of international population funding agencies developed a plan suitable to its unique cultural, social, religious and political characteristics and focused on a few crucial factors. Firstly, it has achieved an absolute rate of literacy. Second, through good health care and adequate nutrition, they have lowered their infant mortality rate dramatically.
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Free words essay on reasons for increasing population for school and college students. Increasing Population- A Giant Engulfing Everything The ever growing population has been a matter of concern worldwide. Although it is said that. Population has been growing faster than food supplies in 64 of developing countries. Arable lands and forests are also exploited to meet the demand of increasing population. Fresh water sources cannot keep up its pace of renewing itself from a steadily increasing population.
Essay on Population Problem in India. Category: Essays, Paragraphs and Articles On October 20, In consequence the rate of population increase has gone down, but the balance between the optimum population growth and a healthy nation is far to be achieved. Essay on Population Growth: Its effects and solution; What is the Population of India? Essay on “Population Problem” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes. About. Essay on “Population Problem” Complete Essay for Class 10, Class 12 and Graduation and other classes. had stated in his famous essay on population that population increased at a much faster rate than food supply.