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❶The Records of Merton College, Oxford, show that paper was purchased "pro registro" in Then these thin "boards" are pasted together much like laminated wood.

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Black Death

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Comments 0 Please log in to add your comment. Islam's golden age was a major contribution to science and math, all of which was recorded on paper Paper Facts Paper is years old Toilet paper was recorded to be used as early as the sixth century Paper's first materials included rice straw,linen, and even old rags During the battle at the Talas river two Chinese prisoners are said to be responsible for teaching the Ottoman Turks how to make paper, which would very quickly spread to the middle east In AD the first paper factory was made in Baghdad By the year AD paper was in general use in the Middle East Paper entered Europe through Islamic Spain Woodblock printing was invented by AD Thank you!

The Chinese Invented Paper Ts'ai Lun was a chinese official during the Han Dynasty, who by making a mix of bamboo and water and by flattening it and drying in the sun, he made paper. Writing was much easier 1. Instead of carving on stone or clay, paper is easier to use to write with 2.

Paper is thinner and is much easier to take care of B. In the course of the 15th century vellum was gradually superseded by paper. Some later manuscripts would use a mixture of vellum and paper. The Council Statute of prohibited anyone within a radius of 50 miles from Fabriano buildings from manufacturing paper or teaching paper making secrets to those not residing within the Council territory, pending a fine of 50 ducats.

A later prohibition has even stiffer penalties. Transgressors were considered "rebels" and thereby banned from the city with consequent capital confiscation.

The extent of the power of the local tribunal's protection of the Fabriano papermakers is highlighted in a document. Council priors, concerned that if maestro Piero di Stefano, the only artisan who practiced the "modular" art in the Marche province died his craft would die with him.

The Council demanded the old maestro to teach the craft to his son or any apprentice in his workshop and not to construct or repair screens used outside the district of Fabriano or he would be penalized with a fine of ducats. It must be constructed so that it will support the weight of the paste and the water without deforming the paper.

The British Museum has a register Add. The paper, of a rough manufacture, is similar to the kind that was used in Spain. The Records of Merton College, Oxford, show that paper was purchased "pro registro" in Evidence for the history of paper-making in England is extremely scanty.

The first maker whose name is known is John Tate, who is said to have set up a mill in Hertford early in the 16th century. He manipulated the favor and patronage of successive monarchs to ensure that he had a virtual monopoly of the paper industry. It is not clear whether John Spilman himself knew anything about the techniques of paper-making, but he was able to finance the employment of skilled German paper-makers at Dartford.

The newly constituted paper-mill of Dartford was the first mill in England to produce good quality white paper on a commercially viable basis. It was a sight to behold, one of the town's earliest tourist attractions!

Spilman's Dartford mill was the subject of lines of poetry written in by Thomas Churchyard and dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh. The acutely long-winded doggerel includes the first description of paper-making ever to appear in print.

The mill seems to have been a prominent and impressive riverside feature: A Paper-mill That now neere Dartford standeth well Where Spilman may himself and household dwell The Mill itself is sure right rare to see The framing is so quaint and finely done Built of wood and hollowed trunks of trees The Hammers thump and make so loud a noise As fuller doth that beats his woollen cloth In open show, then Sundry secret toyes Make rotten rags to yield a thickened froth There it is stamped and washed as white as snow Then flung on frame and hanged to dry, I trow Thus paper straight it is to write upon As it were rubbed and smoothed with slicking stoneThe Dartford-based mill was granted extensive monopoly powers that were often the subject of dispute.

Nobody else was permitted to build a paper-mill without Spilman's consent. In July Spilman was granted a new patent for 14 years which confirmed his monopoly and granted him and his deputies power to search any premises where they suspected rags or paper were being hidden. Spilman's water-tight monopoly was designed to stop other mills attempting to make highly-prized white paper. It is clear that there was some diversification of product at a later date, for in Spilman was making a new and pleasing kind of playing card.

John Spilman was knighted by James I at Dartford. The knighthood was probably granted as much for his activities as court goldsmith and jeweler as for his contribution towards the evolution and development of England's paper industry. Sir John died in and is commemorated in Holy Trinity Church with a tomb, which incorporates colored effigies of himself and his first wife Elizabeth Mengel, daughter of a Nuremberg merchant.

She died in at the age of He had several children by his second wife Katherine who survived until about Some 37 paper mills existed in England between and , most were involved with the production of inferior quality brown paper. The trend towards the production of white paper came later after Spilman's monopoly was broken. Papermaking required a long and often expensive apprenticeship. Workers were frequently sworn to secrecy because no craftsman wished to share knowledge with competitors.

Thirteenth century, paper was produced almost entirely from linen and cotton rags pulped in water http: The pulped fibers were thoroughly mixed in a deep vat, the n the vatman would dip a wire mesh tray into the mixture and a sufficient amount lifted out to yield the required thickness of paper.

A wooden frame called a deckle fitted over the tray to form a raised edge and prevented the watery pulp from escaping. Pulp flowing between the frame and the deckle produced an irregular feathery edge around the paper hence the term "deckle-edged" paper.

As soon as possible the newly formed sheet of paper was removed from the tray and placed between two pieces of felt. The paper-and-felt "sandwiches" were then pressed to remove surplus water and the paper hung to dry. Women graded and sorted cotton and linen rags according to quality. Sorted rags were broken down by hand-stamping the fibers. Stamping mechanism used to reduce rag materials into usable fibers for papermaking. A vat man prepares to dip a paper mold into pulped fiber while the workman to the right drains excess water from a dipped frame.

Heavy presses used to remove the remaining water from the paper are in the background. Women and a male apprentice at work in the drying loft. After pressing, the paper sheets were hung to dry on ropes woven from cow or horse hair.

White paper was the most desired of medieval papers. The poorer grades were made of old and discarded materials and yielded a light coffee color to light Grey. Bleaching was not known unto the early 19th century Hunter , so papermakers had to depend on using only fine fibers for the pulp. The best fabric to be used in period for paper was the linen of the whitest kind. The cotton and linen of the period were woven by hand and were free of chemicals and bleaching.

Hunter , Most English paper is a coarse and gray color until the late 17th century. In France a bluing was added to try to correct the muddy color. Paper making in the winter was difficult because the water was hard to clarify, so it was muddy.

Paper was a Chinese invention probably of the second century and the technique of paper-making spent a thousand years slowly working its way through the Arab world to the West. By the thirteenth century there were established paper mills in Spain and Italy, and in France by about , Germany by , but probably not in England until the later fifteenth century. Paper was exported from its place of manufacture into all parts of Europe see the Map.

By about it become a relatively common medium for little volumes of sermons, cheap textbooks, popular tracts, and so on. As late as a ruling of the University of Cambridge stipulated that only books on parchment could be accepted as security for loans. It was the invention of printing in the Is which transformed the need for paper, and by the later fifteenth century it had become so infinitely cheaper than parchment that it was used for all but the most luxurious books.

Medieval paper was made from linen rags. It is much stronger and more durable than modern wood-pulp paper, and fifteenth-century scribes were wrong if they believed that it would not survive. Rag paper is manufactured as follows. White rags are sorted and washed thoroughly in a tub pierced with drainage holes and they are then allowed to ferment for four or five days. Then the wet disintegrating pieces are cut into scraps and beaten for some hours in clean running water, left to fester for a week, beaten again, and so on, several times over, until the mixture disintegrates into a runny water-logged pulp.

It is then tipped into a huge vat. A wire frame is scooped into the vat, picking up a film of wet fibres, and it is shaken free of drips and emptied onto a sheet of felt. Another layer of felt is laid over it. As the soggy sheets emerge and are tipped out, they are stacked in a pile of multiple sandwiches of interleaved felt and paper. Then the stack is squeezed in a press to remove excess water and the damp paper can be taken out and hung up to dry.

When ready, the sheet is 'sized' by lowering it into an animal glue made from boiling scraps of vellum or other offcuts. The size makes the paper less absorbent and allows it to take ink without running. The sheets may have to be pressed again to make them completely flat. Sometimes, especially in north-east Italy doubtless under the influence of Islamic paper manufacture the paper was polished with a smooth stone to give it a luxurious sheen.

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In the earlier Middle Ages scribes probably assembled their gatherings and wrote in them as they worked through the transcription of a book. By the fifteenth century, at the latest, stationers were certainly selling paper and parchment already made up into gatherings.

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- The Middle Ages lasted approximately 1, years, from the 5th to 15th century. The early part of the Middle Ages is also known as the Dark Ages. The Middle Ages has many nicknames including the Golden Ages and Medieval Times. One of the most accurate nicknames for .

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The Middle Ages are exciting to study and contain a wide variety of research paper topics for religion, history, social sciences and philosophy research papers. Paper Masters suggests the topic you see below on rulers in the Middle Ages for a research paper. Paper of Oriental manufacture in the Middle Ages can be distinguished by its stout substance and glossy surface, and was devoid of water-marks. (Stutermeister , 11)Paper In Europe The first mention of rag-paper occurs in the tract of Peter, abbot of Cluny (A.D. - ), adversus ludaeos, cap. 5.

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Paper helped in the continuation of knowledge during the Dark Ages continue to even today Paper has left us a great impact Paper and It's Importance In the Middle Ages Shaharoz Tahir 6/8/15 Paper Today Paper today is so much in use today that every year we use pounds of paper every year. A. Writing was much easier 1. The Middle Ages were a time of growth and questioning tradition. When students research and write about the Middle Ages, they can learn about the different developments and advancements in art, literature, religion, politics, and society that would help change the world.